The Restoration of Jardwadjali and Djab wurrun names for Rock Art Sites and Landscape Features in and around the Grampians National Park

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The Restoration of Jardwadjali and Djab wurrun names for Rock Art Sites and Landscape Features in and around the Grampians National Park is associated with Grampians, Victoria located at these coordinates -37.207778, 142.399722


Description:
A submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee - 24 May 1990

Ian D. Clark and Lionel L. Harradine, The restoration of Jardwadjali and Djab Wurrung names for rock art sites and landscape features in and around the Grampians National Park, Melbourne, Vic. : Koorie Tourism Unit, 1990.

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Record Citation: VPRS 11563/P1, unit 855
Record URL: http://www.access.prov.vic.gov.au/public/component/daPublicBaseContainer?component=daViewSeries&entityId=11563
Agency: VA 1034 Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands (1983 - 1984)
Agency URL: http://access.prov.vic.gov.au/public/component/daPublicBaseContainer?component=daViewSeries&entityId=1034
Date: 24 May 1990
Record Type: Submission
Event Type:
Language:
Copyright URL: http://prov.vic.gov.au/copyright
Related Resource URL: http://wiki.prov.vic.gov.au/index.php/What%27s_in_a_name%3F
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User Tags: gariwerd, grampians national park, grampians, koorie, koori, place names, names, victorian place names committee




Image Transcript Margin Notes Body of Transcript
Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 01.jpg Koorie

Tourism

Unit

World Trade Centre

PO Box 279

Melbourne 3005

Victoria Australia

Telephone (03) 6199444

Facsimile (03) 6146226

Victorian

Tourism

Commission

A Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee

The restoration of Jardwadjali and Djab wurrung names for Rock Art Sites and Landscape Features in and around the Grampians National Park

24.5.1990

1.


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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 2.jpg Acknowledgements

The expertise and knowledge provided by the following people contributed substantially to the formulation of this submission:

Luise Hercus for advice on meanings of place names, spelling and pronunciation.

Ben Gunn for archaeological knowledge of Victorian Rock Art.

Alan Burns, the Cultural Officer of the Goolum Goolum Aboriginal Co-operative in Horsham, and Mr. Jack Kennedy, an Elder of the Goolum Goolum community, for participation in fieldwork in March 1990.

Without their assistance the information provided with this submission would not be available. We thank them for their contribution.

This submission was prepared by Ian D. Clark, Koorie Tourism Unit, Victorian Tourism Commission, and Lionel L. Harradine, Brambuk Incorporated.

Typed by Judy Brett. and Juliette Hancke.

Produced by the Koorie Tourism Unit.

2.


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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 3.jpg 3

Table of Contents Page No


Title Page          
  Acknowledgements                                                      2
Table of Contents                                                     3
Lists of Figures and Tables                                           4                                                    
Abstract                                                              5
Recommendations                                                       6
Inventory of Jardwadjali and Djab wurrung Place Names in and around the Grampian National Park                                 8
 Implementation                                                        18
The absence of traditional Aboriginal place names in the Grampians    18
Rationale for restoration of traditional names:                       19
Unnamed features
Anglicized forms
Features with European Names
History of name use
Conferred by Ancestors
Duplication
Similar meanings
Culturally inappropriate
Fosters cultural identity
Rock Art Sites
Inventory Analysis
Gariwerd: the general name for the Grampians National Park.            23
Major Thomas L. Mitchell.                                              23
The primary information sources of Jardwadjali and Djabwurrung names  24
Aboriginal clan and tribal organization in the Grampians Region.      26
The meaning and significance of Aboriginal place names.               28
Spelling and pronunciation                                            34


Documentation of Place Names                                          37


References                                                            61
3.


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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 4.jpg 4

List of Figures Page No.

Figure One: Squatting stations in the Grampians region               27

Figure Two: Jardwadjali clan organization                            31

Figure Three: Djab wurrung clan organization                         32

Figure Four: Dhauwurd wurrung ('Gundidjmara') clan organization      33


List of Tables:


Table One: Clan Organization in the Grampians Region                 30

Table Two: Jardwadjali /Djab wurrung orthography                     35
4.


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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 5.jpg 5


Abstract


The Grampians National Park is one of Victoria's most significant Aboriginal places. It contains the largest concentration of rock art sites in Victoria, and other archaeological sites including mounds and scarred trees. The remains of elaborate systems of canals that operated to harvest eels and other fish remain at Mt. William and Toolondo swamps, and they are representative of extensive resource management systems. Yet despite this heritage, there is a pronounced absence of traditional Aboriginal place names.

This submission presents the results of sixteen (16) months of research into the traditional Aboriginal (Koorie) names of landscape features in and around the Grampians National Park. The names were derived from Jardwadjali (pronounced Yardwadjali) and Djabwurrung (pronounced Djap wurrung) speakers in the nineteenth century. Clans speaking these languages owned the country that now forms 'The Grampians National Park'.


Eighty six (86) place names in and surrounding the National Park are identified and documented; along with preferred names for nine (9) Rock Art Sites. In the course of research, the traditional names of four pastoral stations in the vicinity of the National Park were uncovered, and this information is presented in this submission. Although documented, these four names do not form part of the recommendations of this submission. The 86 place names are traditional names of long standing. Of these 86 names, 31 are derived from Aboriginal sources, but are currently used in an Anglicized form, 11 relate to peaks that do not have European names; and 44 refer to features which have European names. Only ten (10) of these 44 names were conferred by the explorer Mitchell in 1836.


Place names are records of the past, inviting careful investigation and interpretation. Although in many instances the original import may have faded, their meanings may be recoverable. Place names and language are an important part Koorie culture and Aboriginal names for mountain ranges, glens, waterfalls, rivers, lakes and other scenes of nature need never be supplanted or have their meanings forgotten if we act soon enough and properly record this material. These names constitute a valuable repository of information about Koorie customs and traditions, all of undoubted ethnological value, and are an important part of this country's history.


There is a very strong case for the restoration of Aboriginal place names and for the ascertaining and publishing of the meanings of these words. The practical reasons for preserving Koorie names are many - they are still known by some Aborigines living in the region and by some non-Koories; they are ancient names for natural features which are of considerable value in their own right. Just as there is now a very definite interest and awareness of the need to maintain what has been left of Koorie life, culture, rock art and traditions, so there should be a growing awareness for the need to preserve Koorie place names.


In summary, this submission presents four sets of recommendations:


i] that 21 incorrectly spelt Aboriginal place names currently in use be corrected and that a further 10 Aboriginal names be retained;

ii] that the use of 44 known Aboriginal names of features more recently given European names be restored;

iii] that the traditional names of 11 places than do not carry European names be adopted;

iv] that the more appropriate names conferred on nine Rock Art Sites in this submission be formally adopted.

5.


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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 6.jpg 6

Introduction

The process of restoring Aboriginal names of features in and around the Grampians National Park began in March 1989. This initiative originated with the Minister for Tourism, the Honourable Steve Crabb, who believes that given the Aboriginal heritage of the Grampians many existing place names are inappropriate. In March, Ian Clark, a historical geographer, and Ben Gunn, a rock art consultant, began researching traditional names and released preliminary reports of their research.


Five Aboriginal communities share responsibility for the cultural heritage of the National Park. They are:

- the Goolum-Goolum Aboriginal Co-operative;

- the Gunditjmara Aboriginal Co-operative;

- the Framlingham Aboriginal Trust;

- the Kerrupjmara Aboriginal Elders Corporation;

- the Portland-Heywood Community.


These groups are Brambuck Incorporated and have been closely involved in the process of research and discussion leading to this submission. Collectively, these five groups share cultural responsibility for the area bounded on the west by the South Australian border, on the north by the Ouyen and Sunraysia Highways, south along the coast to as far as Cape Otway, and east as far as St. Arnaud, Ararat, Cressy and Colac.


Lionel Harradine was appointed by Brambuk in February 1990 to liaise with the communities and the Koorie Tourism Unit to develop the proposal to restore traditional names. This submission has the unanimous support of the Brambuk communities.

Recommendations

In this submission three categories of Aboriginal names are recognized:


(i) Aboriginal names currently in use, although often unrecognizable in their Anglicized form;

(ii) Names of features with English names;

(iii) Names which refer to places hitherto unnamed on maps.


These categories are adopted from Tunbridge's (1987) documentation of Adnyamathanha placenames in the Flinders Ranges in South Australia.

In terms of these three categories and the fourth area of more appropriate names for select rock art sites, the following recommendations are presented:

6.


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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 7.jpg 7


i] that 21 incorrectly spelt Aboriginal place names currently in use be corrected, and that a further 10 names currently in use be retained;

ii] that the Aboriginal names of 44 features which have been given European names be restored;

iii] that 11 features with Aboriginal names that do not carry European names be adopted;

iv] that the Aboriginal names suggested for nine (9] rock art sites be adopted.


In total then the recommendation is that 76 traditional names be restored, and the 9 rock art site names be adopted. The inventory of recommended names summarizes each recommendation, listing the preferred Jardwadjali and Djab wurrung names, favoured pronunciation, meaning, source of Aboriginal name, and the date of origin of the existing European name where appropriate.

7.


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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 8.jpg 8

INVENTORY OF RECOMMENDED JARDWADJALI AND DJAB WURRUNG PLACE NAMES


This inventory lists the recommended Jardwadjaii and Djabwurrung names for both Rock Art sites and landscape features in and around the Grampians National Park.


The inventory is divided into the following categories:

1. Jardwadjali and Djabwurrung names of landscape features in the National Park

(i) names currently in use, many of which have been corrupted and Anglicized; and names pertaining to Koories.

(ii) place names of features with European names.

(iii) place names of sites hitherto unnamed.


2. Jardwadjali and Djabwurrung names of landscape features immediately surrounding the National Park


(i) names currently in use, many of which have been corrupted and Anglicized; and names pertaining to Koories.

(ii) place names of features with European names.


3. Recommended Jardwadjali and Djabwurrung names for Rock Art sites.


4. Traditional names for pastoral stations included for information.


Where known, the meaning of each place name is given, along with recommended pronunciation.


The information contained in the column 'Source of Recommendation' refers to the first authoritative recognition by Europeans of the recommended traditional Koorie names.


The information contained in the column 'Date of present Names' refers to the date that the current name, if derived from non-Koorie sources, was first officially used.

8.


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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 9.jpg 1] JARDWADJALI AND DJABWURRUNG NAMES OF LANDSCAPE FEATURES IN THE GRAMPIANS NATIONAL PARK

(i) Names which are already in use, although unrecognizable in their Anglicized form, and names pertaining to Koories


Present                    Recommended               Recommended         Meaning             Source of               Date of
Name                       Name                      Pronunciation                           Recommendation          Present
                                                                                                                     Name
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Billywing Road             Billawin Road             Bill-la-win         unknown             Robinson 1841           -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Billywing Pine             Billawin Pine
Plantation                 Plantation                Bill-la-win         unknown             Robinson 1841           -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Billywing Gorge            Billawin Gorge            Bill-la-win         unknown             Robinson 1841           -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Bomjinna Picnic Ground     Babdjine Picnic Ground    Babdjine           'big toe'            Chauncy 1862            -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Bomjinna Track             Babdjine Track            Babdjine           'big toe'            Chauncy 1862            -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Boreang Camping Area       Bareng Camping Area       Pareng              'river'             Learmonth 1869          -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Boroka Lookout             Buruga Lookout            Puruka            'breaking off         A Parish in the
                                                                                             County of Borung        -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Brim Creek                 retain                    Brim              'well' or             Pastoral run 1840's     -
                                                                       'spring'
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Buandik Camping Ground     Jardwadjali Camping       Yardwadjali       'no-lip'              A tribal name           -
                           Ground
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Buandik Falls              Jardwadjali Falls         Yardwadjali       'no-lip'              A tribal name           -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Bullawin Road              retain                    Bullawin          unknown               Robinson 1841           -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Burrong Falls              retain                    Burrong           'darkness'            Surveyor-General        -
                                                                                             1869
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
9.


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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 10.jpg .
Burrong Falls              retain                    Burrong           'darkness'            Surveyor-General        -
Picnic Ground                                                                                1869
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Konangiedora Creek         Gunangidura Creek         Gunangidura       'guna'                Thornly 1869            -
                                                                       = excrement
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mirrinatwa Gap             Mirrinaduwa Gap           Mirrinaduwa       'a hole in the        a Parish in the         -
                                                                       ground' or 'a         County of Dundas
                                                                       cave'
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Moora Moora Creek          retain                    Moora Moora        unknown              Robinson 1841           -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Moora Moora                retain                    Moora Moora        unknown              Robinson 1841
Reservoir
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
The Piccaninny             The Bainggug              Baingook           'child'              Hercus 1986     Of Spanish or
                                                                                                            Portugese origin
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Wannon River               retain                    Wannon             uncertain            Mitchell 1836           -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Wartook                    Werdug                    Werdook            'his shoulder'       Pastoral run name       -
                                                                                             1847
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Wartook Reservoir          Werdug Reservoir          Werdook            'his shoulder'       Pastoral run name       -
                                                                                             1847
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Yarram Gap                 retain                    Yarram             'big'                Pastoral run name       -
                                                                                             1847
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Yarram Gap Road            retain                    Yarram             'big'                Pastoral run name       -
                                                                                             1847
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
10.


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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 11.jpg (ii) Names of Features with English names:
Asses Ear                  Djibalara                 Djibalara          floating             Robinson 1843        Mitchell
                                                                                                                  1836
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Birges Nose                Galbidj                   Galpidj            'he might cut        Robinson 1843        First official
                                                                        up'                                       use 1970
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Blackfellow Rock           Billimina                 Billimina          unknown              Thornly 1869         Established
                                                                                                                   by 1869
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Boundary Gap               Dirag                     Dirak              'turpentine bush'    Robinson 1841        First official
                                                                                                                  use 1933
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Briggs Bluff               Budjun Budjun             Boodjun Boodjun    phlegm               Robinson 1843        Earliest listing
                                                                                                                  1865
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Burnt Creek                Ngarriwarrawil            Ngarriwarrawil     'having many         Chauncy 1862         Earliest listing
                                                                        black oaks'                               1853
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Chatauqua Peak             Bim                       Bim                unknown              Robinson 1843        1890's
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Chimney Pots               Larngibunja               Larngibunya        'lar' = stone        Thornly 1869         Earliest listing
                                                                                                                  1866
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Cultivation Creek          Billimina Creek           Billimina          unknown              Mathew 1899          Mathew 1899
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
D'Alton Peak (1009m)       Gurdgaragwurd             Gurtkarakwurt      unknown              Robinson 1841        1880's
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
D'Alton Peak (1022m)       Ngarram Ngarram           Ngarram Ngarram    'big'                Robinson 1841        1880's
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Fyans Creek                Barri yalug               Parri yalook       parri = running      Robinson 1843        Earliest listing
                                                                        'yalug' = river                           1865
                                                                        hence running
                                                                        water or creek
11.


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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 12.jpg .
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Glenelg River              Bugara River              Bookara            'river'              Robinson 1841        Mitchell 1836
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Gog & Magog                Banjin yalug              Banyin yalook      yalug =              Robinson 1841        Only on recent
                                                                        stream/creek                              maps
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Grampians National Park   Gariwerd                  Gariwerd           'The mountain        Robinson 1841        Mitchell 1836
                                                                        range'
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Hollow Mountain            Wudjub-guyun              Wutjup-guyun       'Spear in the        Robinson 1843        Only on recent
                                                                        middle'                                   maps
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
McKenzie Falls             Migunang wirab            Mekunang wirap     'blackfish           Thornly 1869         Earliest listing
                                                                        floating on top                           1865
                                                                        of the water'
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Middleton Peak             Warrirburra               Warrirburra        unknown              Robinson 1843        1920
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mt. Abrupt                 Mud-dadjug                Murd-dajook        'a blunt or          Robinson 1841        Mitchell 1836
                                                                        useless arm'
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mt. Cassell                Didjun                    Didjun             unknown              Robinson 1841        Late 1860's
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mt. Difficult              Gar                       Gar                'pointed nose'       Robinson 1843        1872
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mt. Lang                   Jaranula                  Yaranula           unknown              Robinson 1843        1933
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mt. Lubra                  Warrinna-burb             Warrinna-burb      burb = hill          Robinson 1841        1920
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mt. McIvor                 Ngumadj                   Ngumatj            unknown              Robinson 1843        1933
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mt. Nelson                 Marum Marum               Marum Marum        unknown              Robinson 1841        1970
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mt. Rosea                  Bugiga-mirgani            Bukika-mirkani     unknown              Robinson 1841        1910's
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mt. Stapylton              Gunigalg                  Gunigalk           'manure stick'       Robinson 1843        Mitchell 1836
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mt. Sturgeon               Wurgarri                  Wurkarri           'black'              Robinson 1841        Mitchell 1836
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
12.


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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 13.jpg .
Mt. Victory                Bagara                    Bakara             'straighten'         Robinson 1843        1920
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mt. William                Duwul                     Duwil              'The                 Robinson 1841        Mitchell 1836
                                                                        Mountain'
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mt. William Creek          Baribial                  Paribial           'red gum river'      Wright 1858          Wright 1858
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mt. Zero                   Mura Mura                 Moora Moora        unknown              Robinson 1841        Mitchell 1836
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Red Man Bluff              Ngarra Mananinja gadjin   Ngarra Manyangin   'having water        Robinson 1841        1920
                                                     gadjin             in one's hand'
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Rose's Gap                 Barigar                   Parigar            'mountain            Wilson 1869          By 1853
                                                                        stream'
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Victoria Gap               Jananginj Njaui           Yananginj Njawi    'the sun will go'    Thornly 1869         1853
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Victoria Range             Billawin                  Billawin            unknown              Robinson 1841        Mitchell 1836
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Wallaby Rocks              Mumgalg                   Moomgalk            'base of the        Robinson 1843        1970
                                                                          spine'
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

(iii) Names which refer to sites hitherto unnamed on maps


Range                     Favoured                   Recommended         Meaning             Source of            Date of
Grid Reference            Reconstruction             Pronunciation                          Recommendation       Present
                                                                                                                  Name 
..............................................................................................................................

Serra Range

7323:247506               Wudjugidj                  Wutjukitj           'belonging to       Robinson 1842        -
                                                                          the man'
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7323:214463               Djadji-djawara             Djatji-djawara       Djadji=sisters      Robinson 1842        -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7423-3-4:341753           Gundudarin                Gundudarin           unknown             Robinson 1843        -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Mt. William Range
13.


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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 14.jpg .
7423-3-4:400661           Durd-durd                  Durt-Durt           'stars'             Robinson 1843        -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Mt. Difficult Range

7323-1-1:313023           Ngarram Ngarram            Ngarram Ngarram     'big'               Robinson 1843        -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7323-1-1:271995           Galbidj                    Galpidj             'he might           Robinson 1843        - 
                                                                          cut up'
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7323-1-1:332974           Nguddingiri                Nuguttingiri        unknown             Robinson 1843        -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7323-1-1:331951           Badji-dadjing              Batji-datjing       'knee-top of arm'   Robinson 1843        -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7323-4-4:335913           Bunibridj                  Bunipritj           unknown             Robinson 1843        -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7323-1-1:272993           Ngillin ngillin            Ngillin ngillin     unknown             Robinson 1843        -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7323-1-1:327942           Mirri-gurag                Mirrigurak          'hole in the sand  Robinson 1843        -
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


2] JARDWADJALI AND DJABWURRUNG NAMES OF LANDSCAPE FEATURES IMMEDIATELY SURROUNDING THE GRAMPIANS
NATIONAL PARK

(i) names which are already in use, although unrecognizable in their Anglicized form,
and names pertaining to Koories

Present                   Preferred                  Recommended         Meaning             Source of            Date of
Name                      Spelling                   Pronunciation                           Recommendation       Present
                                                                                                                  Name
..............................................................................................................................
Cherrypool                Djarabul                   Djarabul            unknown             Thornly 1869         -
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Cherrypool Road           Djarabul Road              Djarabul            unknown             Thornly 1869         -
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Gatum                     Gadim-gadim                Gadim-gadim         'boomerang'         Hercus 1986          -
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Ming Ming Swamp           retain                     Ming Ming           unknown             Thornly 1869         -
14.


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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 15 .jpg .
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mirrinatwa                Mirrinaduwa                Mirrinaduwa         'a hole in the      A Parish in the      -
                                                                         ground' or 'a       County of Dundas
                                                                         cave'
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mt. Bepcha                Mt. Bebdja                Bebdja              'white gum          Thornly 1869         -
                                                                         country'
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mt. Bepcha                Mt. Bebdja                 Bebdja              'white gum          Thornly 1869         -
Picnic Ground             Picnic Ground                                  country'
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Woohlpooer Swamp          Wulbuwa Swamp              Walpuwa             'to burn very       Surveyor General     -
                                                                         fiercely'           1869
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


(ii) names of features with English names:

..............................................................................................................................
Black Range (West)        Burrunj Range              Burrunj             'darkness'          Surveyor General     1853
                                                                                             1869
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Dundas Range              Grimgundidj               Grimgundidj          'gundidj =          Robinson 1841        1847
                                                                         belonging to'
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Glenisla Swamp (a) 1.     Gardugwil                 Gartookwil           'a place            Thornly 1869         Not
                                                                         full of owls'                            applicable
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Glenisla Swamp (b) 2.     Ludjug Swamp              Ludjoog              'bare, empty,       Thornly 1869         Not
                                                                         naked'                                   applicable
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Hall's Gap                Budja budja               Boodja boodja        unknown             Robinson 1843        1843
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Rosebrook Home Station
Waterhole                 Budjam budjam             Boojam boojam        unknown             Thornly 1869         Not
                                                                                                                  applicable
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Rosebrook Sheepwash       Jarragallam               Yarragallam          (y)allam =          Thornly 1869         Not
Swamp                                                                    waterhole                                applicable
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
15.


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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 16.jpg 1. Presumably the swamp area at the junction of Carters Channel and Konangiedora Creek (see Mt Bepcha 7323-4-2, east of Glenisla).

2. Presumably the swampy area on Red Rock Creek east of Glenisla home station (see Mt. Bepcha 7323-4-2)

(3)   ROCK ART SITES

Current Name                               Preferred                        Recommended Meaning   
                                           Alternative                      Pronunciation


Glenisla 1                                 Billimina Shelter                Billiminaunknown


Cave of Hands                              Wab Manja Shelter                Wep Manya ‘red painted hands’


Camp of the Emu’s Foot                     Jananginj Njawi Shelter          Yananginj Njawi ‘the sun will go’


Cultivation Creek 5                        Gunangidura Shelter              Gunangidura ‘Guna’ = excrement


Cave of Fishes                             Larngibunja Shelter              Larngibunya ‘Lar’ = ‘stone’


Cave of Ghosts                             Ngamadjidj Shelter               Ngamadjidj ‘white person


Black Range 2                              Mugadgadjin Shelter              Mugadgadjin ‘gadjin’ = ‘water’


Black Range 3                              Burrunj Shelter                  Burrunj ‘darkness’


Flat Rock 1                                Gulgurn Manja Shelter            Gulkurn manya ‘hands of young people’
16.


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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 17 .jpg (4) Traditional Jardwadjali and Djab wurrung names for Pastoral Stations (included for information):


Glenisla Home Station     Lambrug                   Lambrook             'a lot'             Thornly 1869         1843
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Moochambilla              Mudjambula                Mujambula            'the two of         Hercus 1986          Uncertain
                                                                         them pick
                                                                         something
                                                                         up'
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mt. Sturgeon              Dulin gurgundidj          Dulin gurgundidj     'belonging to       Robinson 1841        1839
Home Station                                                             red resin'
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Rosebrook                 Buyub budjun badjun       Booyub boodjun       'pig face           Wilson 1869          1843
                                                    boodjun              phlegm or
                                                                         mucus'.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
17.


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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 18.jpg 18

Implementation

The recommendations contained in this submission cover three categories of place names:

i) incorrectly spelt Aboriginal place names;

ii) features with European names; and

iii) features which do have European names

Place names assume a physical reality by being found on maps and charts, and other printed materials; and by signage.

Given this media, the implementation of the recommendations of this submission will proceed by the manufacture of new signs and replacement of signage with European names and incorrectly spelt Aboriginal names. A careful examination of the signage in The National Park will confirm that very few of the features whose traditional Aboriginal names are being restored are in fact sign posted, so the installation of the new signs will not be inordinately expensive or difficult.

With regard to maps, charts and other printed materials, the recommendations may be practically implemented by resolving to use the restored names when producing new editions of maps and charts, and when the need arises for a further print run of brochures and other tourism publicity.

Given the publicity that will surround the discussion of this submission and the implementation of its recommendations, many of the recommended names will attract considerable attention; however to ensure the success of name restoration, every effort should be made to educate the public in both the meaning and significance, and correct pronunciation of these names.

The absence of traditional Aboriginal place names in The Grampians

The Grampians National Park is one of Victoria's most significant Aboriginal places. It contains the largest concentration of rock art sites in Victoria, and other archaeological sites including mounds and scarred trees. The remains of elaborate systems of canals that operated to harvest eels and other fish remain at Mt. William and Toolondo swamps, and they are representative of extensive resource management systems. The Grampian Mountains were central to the dreaming of the Aboriginal clans of western Victoria, and the mountains dominated both their perceptual and mythical field. As such they are as important to western Victoria's Aboriginal community as Palestine is to people of Christian, Judaic and Moslem faiths.

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The development of the Brambuk Cultural Living Centre in Halls Gap is an indication of the recognition of the unique Aboriginal heritage found in the National Park. However, despite this recognition, the absence of traditional Aboriginal names in the National Park is striking. In the face of the invasion of Scottish and other European place names, only one rock art site name, 'Bunjil’s Shelter’, and 31 place names are derived from Aboriginal sources. These relate to features such as roads (5); plantations (1); picnic grounds (3); lookouts (1): streams (4); camping grounds (2): settlements (3); reservoirs (2); mountains (4); swamps (2); gaps (2); and waterfalls (2). Of these 31 names, we have found meanings for 22 or approximately 71% of them.

Dawson's (1881) comment on the lack of interest in Aboriginal place names is worth restating.

It is deeply to be regretted that the opportunity for securing the native names of places has, in many districts, gone for ever. In most localities the Aborigines are either dead or too young to have learned the names which their fathers gave to the various features of the country; and in those parts where a few old men are still to be met with, the white inhabitants, generally speaking, take no interest in the matter. With a few very worthy exceptions, they have done nothing to ascertain and record even those names which appertain to their own properties. How much more interesting would have been the map of the colony of Victoria had this been attended to at an earlier period of its history (Dawson 1881).

Despite Dawson’s comments we are in the fortunate position where some names can be reconstructed from several nineteenth century sources. In addition to the 31 Aboriginal names currently used in an Anglicized spelling, fifty five (55) place names have been identified. Forty two names (76%) derive from the journals and papers of G.A. Robinson, the Chief Protector of Aborigines from 1839 to 1850; eleven (20%) are from the word lists found in Smyth (1878); one name is derived from Wright (1858) and one from Mathew (1899). Of these 55 place names we know the meaning of 37 or approximately 67% of them.

The Rationale for restoration of traditional names

There are many reasons why traditional Aboriginal names should be restored. The following discussion highlights these reasons and provides examples where relevant.

Unnamed features

Research has identified eleven names for features that do not have European names. Given that these features are unnamed on maps their adoption of the Aboriginal names should be mere formality.

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Anglicized Forms

These are Jardwadjali and Djab wurrung names which due to mispronunciation are unrecognizable. It is the view of the five Brambuk communities that they be restored to their correct form. Corrupt forms such as ‘Cherrypool’ for Djarabul are a product of European history. They were recorded and used at a time when Aboriginal languages had not been given recognition by European society. Since the development of written orthographies we have no excuse to continue to use inaccurate forms, and the wishes the western Victorian Koorie community should be seriously considered.


Features with European names

The greatest controversy arises in regard to these places which had had European names conferred on them with no respect given to the prior Aboriginal names. Despite the controversy there are many reasons why these Aboriginal place names should be restored.


History of Name use

Aboriginal place names are names of long usage (Place Names Committee Guidance Notes Concerning the Naming of Places and Spelling of Place Names, Point 5). They have a history of thousands of years of meaning. The oldest European names in the Grampians region date from 1836, a mere 154 years; yet Aboriginal names are at least 5,000 years old (carbon date from an excavation at Mt. Talbot), and possibly 12,000 years old (carbon date from Lake Bolac) or older. Thus the antiquity of Aboriginal names is a practical reason for their restoration. Restoration would acknowledge the long history of Aboriginal occupation and association. The Place Names Committee's recommendation that names of long usage should be favoured in the face of newer names can only endorse the restoration of Aboriginal names. The oldest European names in the Grampians region are 154 years old. Of the 44 European names that will be effected by this submission, only 10 (23%) date from 1836. In terms of the date of first official use (maps and gazetteers), analysis of the documentation reveals that by 1870 only 22 names, 50% of the total, were in official use. Indeed 11 names (25%) have first appeared since 1900, including three which were first officially used in 1970 (Birges Nose, Mt. Nelson, Wallaby Rocks). Eight names, representing 18% of the total, were not found on historic maps. The implication of course, is that many of the European names are not names of long standing.


Conferred by Ancestors

Aborigines shared a common world view, one which is best exemplified by their belief in the ‘dreaming’ or ‘dreamtime’. In one of its meanings the dreaming was that period at the beginning of time, when mythic beings, sometimes human, sometimes more than human and

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sometimes animal, fixed the world as it is, brought the various species to life, established Aboriginal life and culture and endowed all with a capacity for good and evil. In their movement, the dreamtime heroes determined the spirit centres for both humans and animals.

The activities of these ancestors were commemorated in myths and legends, and in the social and ritual life of the Aborigines. Throughout Victoria the legends varied, but in most tribes there were stories which explained the creation of the tribe and the tribal landmarks.

These myths and legends were an explanation of the world, of the Aborigines' place in it and a guarantee of its stability. For Aboriginal people the land was their source of food and shelter, the home of their totems, the scene of heroic actions on the part of dreamtime Ancestors, and the future resting place of their spirit. Rocky outcrops, a water course or gully, a freshwater spring or expansive lake were not merely geographic features; they were signs of the dreamtime, links with the past and they deserved respect and were treated with love (Christie 1979).

The 'Grampian Mountains’ were central be the dreaming of the buledji Brambimbula, the two brothers Bram, who were responsible for the creation and naming of many landscape features in Western Victoria.

Many of the Aboriginal place names documented in this submission are believed to be conferred by mythological Ancestors, and as such they are memorials to these mythic heroes. They record actions and events associated with Ancestors and many contain references to Ancestral body parts; presumably they refer to the two brothers Bram, the buledji Brambimbula, for example, Mt. Abrupt was known as Mud-dadjug (pronounced Murd-dajook) meaning a ‘blunt or useless arm’. Given that mythology and place names are entwined they are an important part of Australia’s Aboriginal cultural heritage.


Duplication

There is a duplication of European names, and confusion generated by the proximity of similarly named places; for example, in Victoria there are three Burnt Creeks, two Mt. Williams, and six Black Ranges - two of which are east and west of the National Park respectively.


Similar meanings

Two European place names are very similar to their Aboriginal name in meaning. For example, the traditional name for the 'Black Range' is Burrunj (the final 'nj' is pronounced like the Spanish 'n') which means 'darkness' or 'night', and 'Hollow Mountain' is Wudjub-guyun (pronounced wutjup-guyun) meaning 'spear in the middle'.

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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 22.jpg Culturally inappropriate

Some conferred European names are seen as culturally inappropriate given the growing awareness of language which is considered racist. For example, Mt. Lubra, Blackfellow Rock and The Piccanniny are considered offensive. The name 'Halls Gap’ is also considered offensive to the local Koorie community and others, given C.B. Hall's involvement in the killings of two local Aborigines in July 1841 (refer to Documentation).


Fosters cultural identity

The restoration of Aboriginal place names acknowledges the worth of Koorie languages and will foster a sense of cultural identity in the Koorie community. Restoring traditional names affirms the fact that cultural history in this region did not begin in 1836 and has a history of many thousands of years.


Rock Art Sites

The concentration of rock art sites in the Grampians National Park makes the park one the major rock art regions of South Eastern Australia. These sites constitute over 80 per cent of the known art sites in Victoria, and form one of the most significant collection [ sic ] of Aboriginal artefacts in the State.

Only nine art sites are accessible and publicized for public viewing: Camp of the Emu Foot Shelter, Glenisla 1 Shelter, Cultivation Creek 5 Shelter, Cave of Fishes Shelter, Flat Rock 1 Shelter, Cave of Ghosts Shelter, Cave of Hands Shelter, Black Range 2, and Black Range 3.

Many currently used names of the public rock art sites are misleading, confusing and incorrect. For example, the perpetuation of the term 'cave' is misleading for sites that are in fact only small rock overhangs. Similarly, Eurocentric descriptive names, such as ‘Cave of Ghosts’, conjure up inappropriate expectations in visitors that can lead to disappointment and ridicule.

The preferred names for the art sites in this submission are taken from word lists and place names that are available from the Grampians region. Furthermore, as these sites were also used as sheltering places (camp sites), this utilisation should be explicit in any reference. Hence the suggestion that art site names be suffixed by the term 'Shelter'.


Inventory analysis

The inventory lists 86 Aboriginal place names, nine Rock Art Site names, and four pastoral station names. Of these 86 names, 31 names are currently in use of which 10 are retained in their current form; and 11 names relate to features without European names. Thus only 44

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names actually refer to features with a European name. These 44 names can be divided into the following categories:

- waterfalls: 1 (2%)

- mountain ranges: 4 (8%)

- mountain peaks: 19 (43)%

- rock formations or geological features: 7 (16%)

- mountain gaps or passes: 4 (9%)

- rivers and streams: 5 (11%)

- settlements: 1 (2%)

- swamps and waterholes: 4 (9%)

Of these 44 European names only ten (10) 23% were named by Mitchell in 1836. A further sixteen (16) 36% were established by 1870. Between 1870 and 1900 a further five (5) 11% were established; and thirteen (13) 30% have been established since 1900.


Gariwerd; the general name for the Grampians National Park

Research has shown that the Grampians Ranges were traditionally known as Gariwerd. Gariwerd, recorded by George Robinson on the 11th of June, 1841, as ‘Currewurt', was obtained at 'Conongwootong' station from Jardwadjali speakers.

Gariwerd is a compound noun. Gar means 'pointed mountain' and is cognate with the word for 'nose'. The -i is the particularising suffix, which transiates into 'the'. Werd means 'shoulder' and appears in 'werdug' (pronounced werdook) 'his shoulder', the correct form, for 'Wartook’. The compound simply means 'The Mountain Range', and is descriptive and specialized for the mountain range Mitchell subsequently named 'The Grampians'.


Major Thomas L. Mitchell

Mitchell should be credited with advocating the retention of Aboriginal place-names, something unusual among Scottish explorers. For example on September 5, 1829, he instructed his surveyors to ascertain the spelling and meaning of as many Aboriginal names as possible (Ryan 1963).

During his 'Australian Felix' expedition his journal notes suggest that he preferred to use Aboriginal place names whenever possible:

July 15, 1836: In adding this noble range of mountains to my map, I felt some difficulty in deciding on a name. To give appellations that may become current in the mouths of future generations, has often been a perplexing subject with me, whether they have been required to distinguish new counties, towns or villages, or such great natural features of the earth, as mountains and rivers.

I have always gladly adopted aboriginal names, and in the absence of these, I have

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endeavoured to find some good reason for the application of others, considering descriptive names the best, such being in general the character these used by the natives of this and other countries.

Names of individuals seem eligible enough, when at all connected with the history of that discovery, or that of the nation by whom it was made.

The capes on the coast, I was then approaching, were chiefly distinguished with the names of naval heroes; and as such capes were but subordinate points of the primitive range, I ventured to connect this summit with the name of the sovereign in whose region the extensive, valuable, and interesting region below was first explored; and, I confess, it was not without some pride, as a Briton, that I, "more Majorum", gave the name of the Grampians, to these extreme summits of the southern hemisphere (Mitchell 1839).

After the May 1836 massacre near the hill named 'Mt. Dispersion', word quickly spread south that Mitchell was someone to be regarded with suspicion and avoided. Mitchell's inability to discover Aboriginal place names in the vicinity of Gariwerd, other than the Wimmera and Wannon Rivers, can in large part be attributed to the Mt. Dispersion massacre.

Given his inability to discover Aboriginal names in the 'Grampian Mountains', Mitchell named several features with names directly lifted from Scotland (for example, The Grampians'), or names derived from Scottish personal names (Glenelg River), fellow army officers (McKenzie River, Mt. Dundas), and places visited during military service (Asses Ears).

Many of the names originally given by Mitchell were subsequently changed by him during the course of his expedition. The Glenelg River, for example, was initially called the 'Aboukir', changed to the 'Bourke', and then finally named the 'Glenelg'. Mt. William was originally called 'Mt. Blue', then 'Mt. True Blue', and 'Mt. Royal'. The Grampians were originally called the 'Gulielmian Mountains'.

Mitchell's choice of names was not always welcomed. For example the editor of Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine (Vol.xv, Jan-Jun 1839) was hostile to the name 'Glenelg River':

they had at length come in sight of the river which they were to add to British discoveries and which is henceforth to remain the only trophy of the somnolent secretary for the colonies. We presume that with all his official considerations, the remarkable placidity, combined with the remarkable shallowness of his new discovery, may have involuntarily influenced the gallant Major in his giving it the name Glenelg.

The editor was also particularly critical of Mitchell 'distributing his new-found realm among his friends', something he referred to as 'bastard canonization'.


The primary information sources of Jardwadjali and Djabwurrung names

The information sources of Jardwadjali and Djabwurrung names of features in and around

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the Grampians are: the 1836 journals of Thomas Mitchell and Granville Stapylton; the 1840 and 1842 reports of the surveyor Charles Tyers; the 1841 and 1843 journals and papers of George Augustus Robinson; the 1858 list of place-names by William Wright; the Crown Lands Commissioner for the Wimmera district; lists of place-names from Local Guardians collected by R. Brough Smyth in 1869; Dawson (1881); information A.W. Howitt obtained from a Jardwadjali speaker in 1884; Carter (1898); and Mathew (1899).

Mitchell's exploration party visited the Grampians in July 1836, and two features (Wannon and Wimmera Rivers) were named from information supplied by local clanspeople.

In February 1840, Tyers and Tommy, his Wada wurrung balug companion from the Barrabool Hills near Geelong, ascended Mt. Sturgeon. Tyers subsequently published a list of place names obtained from Tommy and Billy, another Wada wurrung speaker. Robinson, as the Chief Protector of Aborigines spent time in the Grampian ranges, obtaining many names for its features. He visited the region on two occasions, 1841 and 1843. In his journals and papers he includes several sketches of ranges and the names of their peaks.

In 1858 the Surveyor General wrote to District Surveyors and Crown Land Commissioners requesting they forward lists of Aboriginal names of various localities in their districts. Wright, who was responsible for the Wimmera District, included the names of several features in the Grampians. In July 1869, Smyth the Secretary of the Board for the Protection of Aborigines, sent a circular letter to every Local Guardian of Aborigines, requesting they ascertain the Aboriginal names of the rivers, creeks, hills, ranges, and other natural features in their districts. H.L. McLeod (Portland), Peter Learmonth (Hamilton), S. Wilson (Glenorchy), H.B. Lane (Warrnambool), and J.H. Jackson (Balmoral), sent information regarding the Grampian Ranges. Smyth published their replies in 1878. He included place names collected by Phillip Chauncy, a District Surveyor, during the years 1862-66, from Aborigines at Ararat and other localities. Several words were given to him by the Rev. Spieseke, the Missionary at Ebenezer Mission Station on the Wimmera River, near Lake Hindmarsh, and two or three other unidentified people. Dawson (1881) provides some information. In 1884, Johnny Connolly, a Jardwadjali 'half-caste', whose European father was a gold digger at Pleasant Creek, gave Howitt the names of several features in the Grampians. In 1898, Samuel Carter, a local land holder published his reminiscences, and they contain useful information.

Of these sources Robinson's records are the most reliable; for reasons that relate to his method of collecting information which was designed to overcome the difficulty of obtaining correct information. He was cautious with new information and only after cross-checking it several times with other Aborigines and repeating new information would he be satisfied it was correct. His other primary information source was gained from local clanspeople who would join his party and serve as guides and informants. These individuals were in effect 'walking encyclopaedias'; each possessed an intimate knowledge of their clan's 'estate', and could

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provide a detailed gazetteer of their country. For example, in one instance in his journal, Robinson (30/7/1841) noted that one of his guides 'kept chatting about his country and calling out the names of different locations'. A further proof that Robinson's place names are reliable is the fact that many of his clan names and place names are endorsed by later sources. Thus his method of obtaining information is confirmed to be accurate, even if at times his transcriptions are poor.

The credibility of many of Robinson's place names were subsequently endorsed when they, or cognate equivalents, were adopted as Parish names in the Counties of Dundas, Ripon and Borung. Several early maps of Western Victoria contain Aboriginal place names and these support Robinson's data (see Bibliography).

A further source of Aboriginal place names is the name of pastoral runs, many of which were named after Aboriginal localities (for example 'Moora Moora', 'Yarram Yarram', and 'Wartook' [see Figure One]).


Aboriginal Clan and tribal organization in the Grampian Region

At the time of the European occupation of Victoria, it was still possible to learn something about pre-European political and social institutions of the Aborigines. Some Europeans recognized that they were organized into clans, not unlike the Scottish people (see Clark 1990). Aboriginal tribes were clusters of clans that were related by linguistic and cultural bonds. Clans were, in point of fact, the most important political units in Aboriginal society.

Another way to learn the names of places is through a reconstruction of the location and names of clans. Clans generally took their names from named localities of features. Suffixes meaning either 'belonging to' (gundidj/kunditj) or 'people' (balug/baluk) where [ sic ]added to these place names, and these two elements constituted the clan name. For example the clan belonging to what we know as Mt. William was called Duwul balug (pronounced duwil baluk) (Clark 1990). There were numerous clans located in the Gariwerd region, and the fact that they took their names from specific locations, similar to the Duwul balug, provides us with a further foundation on which to reconstruct place names. Table One lists the Aboriginal clans in and around Gariwerd.

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[ Map notations ]

Adelaide Horsham St Helens

Hamilton Swinton

Wonwondah [ illegible ] Ledcourt Glenorchy

Newington

Rosebrook Wartook Lake Lonsdale Stawell

Brim Spring La Rose Mokepilly and Lexington Great Western

Glenisla Moora Moora Mt William Moyston Ararat

Mt Burchell Barton Cathcart Ballarat

Victoria Valley Yarram Yarram Mount William Geelong

Mount Sturgeon

Hamilton Dunkeld

Figure One: Pastoral Runs in the Grampians District, 1835-1851 (Source: Calder 1987)


Research by Clark (1990) into tribal organization in south west Victoria suggests that the Gariwerd were shared by two tribes, Jardwadjali [Figure Two] and Djab wurrung [Figure Three]. These tribes were very similar linguistically, sharing 90% common vocabulary. A third language, Dhauwurd wurrung (Tindale's 'Gundidjmara') was to the south of Jardwadjali and Djab wurrung; its northern boundary ran along the Glenelg River, from its mouth to its junction with the Wannon River, and then along the Wannon to its junction with the Grangeburn [Figure Four]. Clark's reconstruction of the Jardwadjali is considerably different to that of Tindale's (1974). For reasons given in Clark (1990), a large portion of country Tindale considered to be Buandig (Buandik), has been more correctly delineated as Jardwadjali.

The majority of Aboriginal place names that are documented in this submission are derived from Aborigines speaking Djab wurrung and Jardwadjali. Some originate from Dhauwurd wurrung, Wergaia, and Wada wurrung speakers. As Djab wurrung and Jardwadjali shared at least 90% common vocabulary, we can state that the region they covered was linguistically similar. Wergaia scored 70% with Jardwadjali/Djab wurrung, and Dhauwurd wurrung and Wada wurrung scored 48%. Thus Dhauwurd wurrung and Wada wurrung were quite foreign to Jardwadjali and Djab wurrung, and this difference accounts for some of the variant place names recorded in the literature.

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The meaning and significance of Aboriginal place names

Australian Aborigines (Koories in New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania; Murries in Queensland, et al), provide a clear example of how hunters and gatherers can be intensely attached to a place. They distinguish two types of territory - 'estate' and 'range'. Estate is the traditionally recognised home or dreaming place of patrilineal descent groups and their adherents. Range is the tract or orbit over which the group ordinarily hunts and forages. Range is more important than estate for survival; estate is more important that range for social and ceremonial life. From their view, range is where they could walk about or run; estate us where they could sit. Strong emotional ties are established with the estate. It is the home of Ancestors, the dreaming place where every incident in legend and myth is firmly fixed in some unchanging aspect of nature - rocks, hills and mountains, even trees, for trees can outlive human generations.

Landscape is personal and tribal history made visible. To Aboriginal Australians topographical features are a record of 'who were here, and did what'. They are also a record of 'who we are now'. The landscape - though unmodified to western eyes - documents the achievements of a people. The landscape is littered with memorials to mythic heroes.

Gariwerd, mountains now known as 'The Grampians', dominated the mythical and perceptual field of the Aborigines, and it remains a place for modern Australians who are drawn to visit the National Park.

Many Aboriginal place names may be classified on the basis of their subject: water; plants; fishing; trees; natural elements; memorable experiences; fauna; birds; social life; human situations; distinctive features, and mythology and traditions.

The meaning of a name may be understood as either the English equivalent of the name, the mythological significance of the place to which it refers, historical events which have occurred there, the appearance of the place - or it may simply be the literal meaning of the word or words.

Mythology and place names are inextricably entwined. Myths may relate to one particular place, or they may relate to the travels of an Ancestor. Place names are often based on something that a dreamtime hero is said to have seen at the location as he first travelled through the tribal territory, exploring and assigning names to important places. Indeed, Dixon (1980:29) has shown that place names in some areas may well have remained unchanged for several millennia. Place names often contain references to the body parts of an Ancestor. Some names relate to certain actions and events associated with Ancestors. Although in most cases the mythology and connected narrative associated with these names has been lost, the names survive as living reminders of this cultural heritage. Examples are Mudjambula (pronounced mujambula, 'Moochambilla') meaning 'the two of them pick something up'; Werdug (pronounced werdook, 'Wartook') ‘his shoulder’; Mud-dadjug

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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 29.jpg (pronounced murd-dajook, 'Mt, Abrupt') 'blunt, usless arm', Wudjugidj (pronounced Wutjukitj, an unnamed peak in the Serra Range) 'belonging to the man'; and Wudjub-guyun (pronounced wutjup-guyun, 'Hollow Mountain') 'spear in the middle'.

Names are often descriptive of the geography of the places to which they refer. Such names may describe the place literally, or metaphorically. Aboriginal place names often encode a vast amount of environmental knowledge. For example Bebdja (Bepcha) means 'white gum country', Ngarriwarrawil (Burnt Creek) means 'having many black oaks', Baribial (pronounced paribial, 'Mt. William Creek') means 'redgum river', and Dulin gurgundidj (Mount Sturgeon Homestation) means 'belonging to red resin'. Names may relate to flora and fauna, possibly even to flora and fauna that were once in the area. For example Dirag (pronounced Dirak, 'Boundry Gap') refers to the terpentine bush, Migunang wirab (pronounced Mekunang wirap, 'McKenzie Falls') means 'blackfish floating on top of the water' and Gardugwil (pronounced gartookwil, 'a swamp on Glenisla Station') means 'a place full of owls'.

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Table One: Clans in the Gariwerd Region

Dhauwurd wurrung (Gundidimara)


[ Headings ] Clan Name Approximate Location

5 Bugarra gundidj Glenelg River

7 Bonedol gundidj Ponedol Hills

9 Carnbul gundidj South west of 'Tahara' station

47 Wanedeet gundidj 'Tahara' and 'Murndal'

52 Worcarre gundidj North east of the head of Stokes River


Djab wurrung

4 Boner balug Mt. Cassell

12 Jacalet 'La Rose' and 'Mokepilly'

16 Mitteyer balug Barton Morass

17 Mud-dadjug gundidj Mt. Abrupt

28 Tillac gundidj A river nothwest of Mt. Rouse

29 Tin balug 'La Rose' and 'Mokepilly'

31 Duwal balug Mt. William

32 Toorac balug Mt. Pierrepoint

33 Uelgal gundidj 'The Grange'

36 Watteneer balug Mt. William Swamp and Nekeeya Swamp

37 Weeripcart balug Near 'Mt. William Station'

38 Worrembeetbeer gundidj Mt. Bainbridge and 'Kanawalla'

39 Wurgarri gundidj Mt. Sturgeon

41 Yourwychall gundidj Wannon and Grangeburn Rivers


Jardwadjali

2 Barbardin balug Between Rose's Station and the Wimmera River

16 Konenicen balug Wimmera River

18 Larnaget Swamp northeast of 'Ledcourt'

19 Lil lil gundidj 'Wonwondah'

22 Mura Mura barap Mt. Zero

23 Ngaram Ngaram balug South west of Mt. William

24 Billiwan balug Dundas Range

25 Pobbiberer balug Wimmera River

33 Whiteburer gundidj Victoria Range

34 Worrercite Dundas Range

35 Yamneborer balug Victoria Range

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Figure Two: Jardwadjali Clans (Source: Clark 1990)

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Figure Three: Djab wurrung Clans (source: Clark 1990)

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Figure Four: Dhauwurd wurrung (Gundidjmara) Clans (Source: Clark 1990)

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Places were given names because they were significant and needed to be identified. To Aboriginal people a 'place' may be a hollow, an open space, an area around a waterhole, a tree, or a group of rocks. Aboriginal place names may incorporate a generic term, that is the term for the feature to which it refers, for example, 'river', 'waterhole', 'mountain' etc., however it is not the referent of the generic term which is significant (for example the rock) but the whole area. Thus although a name may literally refer to a feature, it is applied to the general locality. For example a name for a waterhole, may denote a specific tree at the waterhole, but it refers to the locality, which may have been important as a meeting place. Examples here include Barriyalug (pronounced parri yalook, 'Fyans Creek') 'running river'; Gar (Mt. Difficult) 'pointed nose'; and Duwul (pronounced duwil, 'Mt. William') meaning 'The mountain'.

Creeks need not have one name for the entire watercourse, but many do. When there is a major stream, it often doesn't have a proper name at all, and is simply known as 'the river', for example Bugara (pronounced bukara, 'Glenelg River'), and Barigar (pronounced parigar, 'Rose's Gap') meaning 'mountain stream'. Smaller creeks usually have the same names throughout their length. Dawson (1881) understood the naming principles associated with rivers and streams in the following terms:

It must be noticed that rivers have not the same name from their source to the sea. The majority of Australian streams cease to flow in summer, and are then reduced to a chain of pools or waterholes, all of which, with their intermediate fords, have distinguishing names. The river which connects these waterholes in winter has no name. Every river, however, which forms one continuous stream during both summer and winter has a name which is applied to its whole length. For example, Taylor's River, or Mount Emu Creek, is called "Tarnpirr", "flowing water", from its source in Lake Burrumbeet to its junction with the Hopkins. At the same time, every local reach in these rivers has a distinguishing name.


Spelling and Pronunciation

Many place names were first recorded by people who were not trained linguists, and consequently errors were made in phonetic transcription. This explains why there are several variant spellings of many place-names. An example is 'Mt. William': one source has 'To-ol', another 'Dhole', and a third 'Tuuwuul'.

In one sense it does not matter what system of spelling is followed as long as its use is consistent. However, certain conventions can be clarified. Consonants p and b, t and d, k and g are variants of single sounds and may be written as either voiceless (p,t,k) or voiced symbols (b,d,g). The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies uses voiced symbols and this convention is adopted in this submission. To return to Mt William, this would imply that the better reconstruction is Duwul pronounced 'Duwil'. Table Two shows the phonemic system followed in this submission.

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Table Two: DJAB WURRUNG/JARWADJALI PHONEMES


1. Consonants

...................................................................................

[ Headings ] labial alveolar retroflex palatal velar

...................................................................................

plosives b d rd dj g

...................................................................................

nasals m n rn nj ng

...................................................................................

laterals l

...................................................................................

glides w j

...................................................................................

R-sounds r rr

...................................................................................


2. Vowels


i u

e

a


This system adapted from Hercus' (1986) outline of the Wergaia language. In this language the initial plosives were always voiced; intervocalic consonants were usually devoiced except where they were followed by a closely cognate vowel, and where there was a tendency towards co-articulation; dj intervocalic before i, and g and b intervocalic before u were on the whole voiced, though occasionally there was partial devoicing. Final plosives were voiceless, hence beb 'white gum' (pronounced 'bep'), galg 'bone' ('galk'), wadj 'golden wattle' ('watj'), gad 'cart' ('gat'), and gulurd 'she-oak' ('gulurt').


The inventory lists recommended pronunciation for each place name. A brief skim of these words might suggest that g's and k's and b's and p's are being randomly pronounced. However there is rhyme and reason in all this. In certain positions like initial 'b' followed by a 'u', the pronunciation is 'b', when followed by an 'ar' as in 'Pareng', it is more unvoiced and

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Submission to the Victorian Place Names Committee Grampians 36.jpg sounds closer to a ‘p’. Although the use of a voiced or voiceless plosive does not alter the meaning of a given word, say, for example, Jardwadjali, the principles of the Wergaia language are clear that this should be pronounced 'Yardwadjali’.

In several cases of Aboriginal names currently in use, for example, ‘Yarram Gap’ and ‘Moora Moora Creek’, the Brambuk communities decided to retain them as their current form gives an acceptable pronounciation [ sic ].


With regards to accentuation, in Wergaia the main stress accent always fell on the first syllable of a word.

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DOCUMENTATION OF JARDWADJALI AND DJAB WURRUNG PLACE NAMES

1. JARWADJALI AND DJAB WURRUNG NAMES OF LANDSCAPE FEATURES IN THE GRAMPIANS NATIONAL PARK

For each entry grid references are only given for specific features such as mountains, settlements, and waterfalls. Rivers and tracks are not grid referenced. Each entry contains the following information:

Existing name; preferred Aboriginal name; and recommended pronunciation in parentheses; grid reference; primary reference; meaning; list of known variants; supporting references; and discussion.

(i) Names which are already in use, although unrecognisable in their Anglicized form, and names pertaining to Aborigines:

These are names that are either corruptions of Aboriginal words, such as 'Boreang Camping Area', or artificial constructions, such as 'Billywing Track'. Many of these names, though they relate to specific named features, and originate in the records of either Robinson (1841, 1843) and Smyth (1878), have been artificially conferred on features they have little if any historical association with. For example Billawin, here corrupted as 'Billywing', is the Jardwadjali name for the 'Victoria Range', yet it has been conferred on the three features: a gorge and two European constructions - a road/track and a pine plantation.


Billywing Road/Track: Billawin Road (Bill-la-win)

Grid Reference: not applicable

Primary References: Southern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: unknown

Variant: Billywing

Supporting Reference: not applicable

Discussion: Bullawin is a Parish in the Country of Dundas. The Billawin balug (a Jarwadjali clan, belonged to Billawin (the Victorian Range, see Clark 1990). Billywing is a corruption of Billawin, the Jardwadjali name for the 'Victoria Range'.


Billywing Pine Plantation: Billawin Pine Plantation (Bill-la-win)

Grid Reference: 7323:115745

Primary Reference: Southern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: unknown

Variant: Billywing

Supporting Reference: not applicable

Discussion: see entry for Billywing Road


Billywing Gorge: Billawin Gorge (Bill-la-win)

Grid Reference: 7323:145718

Primary Reference: Southern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: unknown

Variant: Billywing

Supporting Reference: not applicable

Discussion: see entry for Billywing Road


Bomjinna Picnic Ground: Babdjine Picnic Ground (Babdjine)

Grid Reference: 7423-3-4:429736

Primary Reference: Chauncy 1862-66 in Smyth 1878

Meaning: 'big toe' (literally 'mother of foot'). Hercus 1986 'djine' = 'foot'

Variants: Bomjinna; Bonjinna; Bona-jenna.

Supporting Reference: Smyth 1878

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Discussion: originally 'Bomjinna' was recorded by Chauncy (1862-66 in Smyth 1878 as a possible name for Mt. William.


Bomjinna Track: Babdjine Track (Babdjine)

Grid Reference: not applicable

Primary Reference: Chauncy 1862-66 in Smyth 1878

Meaning: 'big toe' (literally 'mother of foot'). Hercus 1986 'djine' = 'foot'

Variants: Bomjinna; Bonjinna; Bona-jenna.

Supporting Reference: Smyth 1878

Discussion: originally 'Bomjinna' was recorded by Chauncy (1862-66 in Smyth 1878) as a possible name for Mt. William.


Boreang Camping Area: Bareng Camping Area (Pareng)

Grid Reference: 7323-1-2:258847

Primary Reference: Northern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: 'river', Hercus (pers. comm)

Variant: Boreang

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: 'Boarang' was recorded by Learmonth (1869 in Smyth 1878) as a name for the Wannon River.


Boroka Lookout: Buruga Lookout (Puruka)

Grid Reference: 7423-4-4:335903

Primary Reference: Northern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map 1989

Meaning: ‘breaking off', Hercus (pers. comm)

Variant: Boroka

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: Boroka is a Parish in the County of Borung


Brim Creek: retain

Grid Reference: not applicable

Primary Reference: Northern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: ‘well or spring', Hercus (pers. comm)

Variant: Brim

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: ‘Brim Brim' was a pastoral run in the 1840's.


Buandik Camping Ground: Jardwadjali Camping Ground (Yardwadjali)

Grid Reference: 7323:133763

Primary Reference: Southern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: Jardwadjali is the tribal name of the clans on the western side of the National Park and literally means 'no lip' (see Clark 1990).

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: this camping ground was given this name because of its proximity to the rock art site known as 'Buandik Shelter'. Buandik is the name of a tribe from the south east of South Australia. Researchers incorrectly located it in the western portion of the National Park (see Clark 1990).


Buandik Falls: Jarwadjali Falls (Yardwadjali)

Grid Reference: 7323: 142762

Primary Reference: Southern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: Jardwadjali is the tribal name of the clans on the western side of the National Park and literally means 'no lip' (see Clark 1990).

Supporting Reference: not applicable

Discussion: this camping ground was given this name because of its proximity to the rock art site known as 'Buandik Shelter'. Buandik is the name of a tribe from the south east of South Australia. Researchers incorrectly located it in the western portion of the National Park (see Clark 1990).

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Bullawin Road: retain

Grid Reference: not applicable

Primary Reference: Southern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: unknown.

Variant: Bullawin

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: ‘Bullawin’ is a Parish in the County of Dundas. ‘Bullawin’ should be retained to distinguish it from Billawin Road (see above)


Burrong Falls: retain

Grid Reference: 7323-1-2:225877

Primary Reference: Northern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: ‘darkness’, Hercus 1986.

Variant: Burrong

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: ‘Burrunj’ (Burrong) is the Jardwadjali name for the ‘Black Range’, west of the National park.


Burrong Falls Picnic Ground: retain

Grid Reference: 7323-1-2:225877

Primary Reference: Northern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: ‘darkness’, Hercus 1986.

Variant: Burrong

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: ‘Burrunj’ (Burrong) is the Jardwadjali name for the ‘Black Range’, west of the National Park.


Konangiedora Creek: Gunangidura Creek (Gunangidura)

Grid Reference: not applicable.

Primary Reference: Mt. Bepcha 7323-4-2 Map Sheet

Meaning: ‘Guna’ is the ubiquitous word for excrement. Hercus (pers.comm.)

Variants: Konangiedora, Konangiedwara, Konangedura

Supporting References: Thornly in Smyth in 1878:63; Surveyor-General in Smyth 1878:201.

Discussion: a small stream that drains into Red Rock Creek (see Mt. Bepcha Map Sheet 7323-4-2).


Mirrinatwa Gap: Mirrinaduwa Gap (Mirrinaduwa)

Grid Reference: 7322:287568

Primary Reference: Southern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: ‘Mirri’ means ‘a hole’; presumably means ‘a hole in the ground’ or ‘a cave’, Hercus (pers. comm.).

Variants: Mirrinatwa, Mirranatwa

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: Mirrinatwa is a Parish in the County of Dundas.


Moora Moora Creek: retain

Grid Reference: not applicable

Primary Reference: Northern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: unknown.

Variant: Moora Moora

Supporting Reference: not applicable

Discussion: The Mura mura gundidj, a Jardwadjali clan, belonged to Mura Mura (Mt. Zero) (See Clark 1990). A pastoral run was named ‘Moora Moora’ in the 1840s.


Moora Moora Reservoir: retain

Grid Reference: 7323:260790

Primary Reference: Northern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: unknown.

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Variant: Moora Moora

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: The Mura mura gundidj, a Jardwadjali clan, belonged to Mura Mura (Mt. Zero, see Clark 1990). A pastoral run was named 'Moora Moora' in the 1840s.


The Piccaninny: Bainggug (Baingook)

Grid Reference: 7322: 178354

Primary Reference: Southern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: 'The Child', Hercus 1986

Variant: The Piccaninny

Supporting Reference: not applicable

Discussion: Piccaninny is an unacceptable term. According to Dixon (1980:70) the word is of Portuguese or Spanish origin. Bainggug is the local word for 'child'.


Wartook: Werdug (Werdook)

Grid Reference: 7323:188008

Primary Reference: Northern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: '(his) shoulder', a reference to the shoulder of a mythological Ancestor, Hercus 1986. Variant: Wartook

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: 'Wartook' was the name of a pastoral run in the 1840s, and is a Parish name in the County of Borung.


Wartook Reservoir: Werdug Reservoir (Werdook)

Grid Reference: 7323:290950

Primary Reference: Northern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: '(his) shoulder', a reference to the shoulder of a mythological Ancestor, Hercus 1986.

Variant: Wartook

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: 'Wartook' was the name of a pastoral run in the 1840s, and is a Parish name in the County of Borung.


Wannon River: retain

Grid Reference: not applicable.

Primary Reference: Mitchell 1839

Meaning: according to Calder (1987) may be a corruption of the word for digging stick or boomerang.

Variants: Wannon, Parre Yalloke, Parrie Yalloak, Boarang, Callowarrer, Karrawalla, Worcurrekite, Worcurerkite

Supporting References: Learmonth 1869 in Smyth 1878; Robinson Journal 26/6/1841, 13/4/1843; Robinson Papers 29/6/1841 in Vol. 65, Pt. 2., Tyers 1842 in Smyth 1878:66.


Discussion: Wannon River named by Mitchell on the 11/8/1836 near its junction with the Glenelg River. According to Mitchell it is of Aboriginal origin. Other than 'Wannon', four other names are given in the literature:

- Barriyalug (pronounced parriyalook; variants: Parre Yalloke, Parrie Yalloak) meaning 'running river/creek'; it should be noted that 'Parrie Yalloak' is a Parish in the County of Ripon;

- Bareng (pronounced pareng; variant; Boarang) meaning 'river';

- Wurgarrigidj (pronounced wurkarrikitj; variants: Worcurrekite, Worcurerkite) meaning 'belonging to Wurgarri' (i.e. Mt. Sturgeon);

- Garrawala (pronounced garrawalla; variants: Callowarrer, Karrawalla) meaning 'big flood'. 'Kanawalla' was the name of a pastoral run in the 1840s.

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Every name listed is probably a legitimate name for this river, however given that ‘Wannon’ was obtained from some local Aborigines in 1836 by Mitchell, there seems no reason to change it. However it is odd that this name was never repeated to later collectors of toponyms. With the exception of Bareng which was gained in 1869, the other three originate from Robinson in 1841 and 1843. Barriyalug was also given as the name of Fyans Creek.


Yarram Gap: retain

Grid Reference: 7323:315542

Primary Reference: Southern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: ‘big’, Clark 1990

Variant: Yarram

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: ‘Yarram Yarram’ was the name of a pastoral run in the 1840’s.


Yarram Gap Road: retain

Grid Reference: not applicable

Primary Reference: Southern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: 'big'., Clark 1990

Variant: Yarram

Supporting Reference: not applicable

Discussion: 'Yarram Yarram' was the name of a pastoral run in the 1840's.


(iii) Names of features with English names:


Asses Ears: Djibalara (Djibalara)

Grid Reference: 7323:180937

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl 11/4/1843

Meaning: floating., Hercus pers. comm.

Variant: Giblarer

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: this feature was named the 'Asses Ears' by Major Mitchell in 1836 after one of the pinnacles on the island of St. Helena. Presumably they bore some resemblance (Bailliere 1865; Sexton 1906; Blake 1977).


Birges Nose: Galbidj (Galpidj)

Grid Reference: 7423-4-3:338777

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl 11/4/1843

Meaning: 'he might cut up' Galba = to cut up, to split in half., Hercus 1986:204

Variant: Calpeet

Supporting Reference: not applicable

Discussion: a search at the State Library could not find 'Birges Nose' on any historical maps dated before 1970


Blackfellow Rock: Billimina Rock (Billimina)

Grid Reference: 7323:160787

Primary Reference: Thornly in Smyth 1878

Meaning: unknown

Variants: Bellemenah, Billiminah

Supporting Reference: Blake 1977

Discussion: Billiminah is a Parish in the County of Dundas. 'Blackfellow Rock' is presumably of descriptive origin; date of first use unknown, but established by 1869 when Surveyor-General Thornly obtained its Aboriginal name. Cultivation Creek was also known as 'Billimina'.


Boundary Gap: Dirag (Dirak)

Grid Reference: 7423-3-4:484690

Primary Reference: GAR Papers 20/7/1841 Vol. 65

Meaning: turpentine bush., Hercus pers comm.

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Variants: Jarruc, Teerac

Supporting References: GAR Jnl 20/7/1841, 13/4/1843

Discussion: the earliest map reference to 'Boundary Gap' is the 1933 Lands Department Map.


Briggs Bluff: Budjun Budjun (Boodjun Boodjun)

Grid Reference: 7324:296055

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl 11/4/1843

Meaning: 'phlegm, matter, running sore'., Hercus 1986:200.

Variant: Budjern Budjern

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: 'Briggs Bluff' is derived from Captain Robert Briggs, an overlander, who squatted at 'Ledcourt' for Mrs. Redfern's estate, from 1840 until June 1842. The earliest known reference is Balliere (1865). Briggs was formerly a captain in the East India Company army. According to George Robinson, the Chief Protector of Aborigines, Briggs was generally on good terms with local Aborigines and went out hunting with them; apparently when he left the district the Aborigines cried for several days (Balliere 1865; Billis & Kenyon 1974; Calder 1987; Clark 1988).


Burnt Creek: Ngarriwarrawil (Ngarriwarrawil)

Grid Reference: not applicable

Primary Reference: Chauncy in Smyth 1878

Meaning: 'having many black Oaks'. Hercus (pers. comm 9/10/1989) Ngarri = oak tree, Casuarina species (bull oak).

Variant: Ngarrewarrawil

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: The origin of 'Burnt Creek' is unknown, though presumably it is descriptive; earliest known listing is Arrowsmith's 1853 Map; described in Bailliere's (1865) Gazetteer. Two other creeks in Victoria bear the same name.


Chatauqua Peak: Bim (Bim)

Grid Reference: 7423-4-3:345889

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl 11/4/1843

Meaning: unknown

Variant: Bim

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: The name 'Chatauqua Peak' is derived from the Chautauqua Movement, an evangelical organisation formed in America in 1874 to encourage greater co-operation between different Christian Churches by holding summer schools. In the 1890's, a local Chautauquan group began to hold picnics and outings in the Grampians. In 1892, an encampment was set up on the banks of Stony Creek (now known as Halls Gap) by an American Evangelist, Dr. Bevan. Apparently the locals were so impressed with the evangelical camp that they named the nearby mountain Chatauqua Peak (Calder 1987; Stanton 1988; Kingston 1989).


The Chimney Pots: Larngi bunja (Larngibunya)

Grid Reference: 7323:095620

Primary Reference: Thornly in Smyth 1878:63

Meaning: 'Larngi' is taken from the word 'lar' meaning 'stone'., Hercus 1986.

Variants: Larngebunyah; Larneebunyah

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: Larneebunyah is a Parish in the County of Dundas. 'The Chimney Pots' (Victoria Range), is presumably descriptive; earliest known listing includes Dundas County Map (1866); also known as 'Chimney Gap'.


Cultivation Creek: Billimina Creek (Billimina)

Grid Reference: not applicable

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Primary Reference: Mathew 1899.

Meaning: unknown

Variant: Billiminah

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: Mathew (1899) notes that Cultivation Creek was formerly known as 'Billiminah Creek'.


D'Alton Peak (1009m): Gurdgaragwurd (Gurtkarakwurt)

Grid Reference: 7423-4-3:333796

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl 20/7/1841

Meaning: unknown

Variant: Cortcarerquort, Cortcarerequert

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: The two 'D'Alton Peaks' were named after William D'Alton who emigrated from Ireland during the 1850's gold rushes, and moved to Halls Gap in the late 1870's. Many of his family became strongly associated with the area. (Calder 1987).


D'Alton Peak (1022m): Ngarram Ngarram (Ngarram Ngarram)

Grid Reference: 7423-4-3:333803

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl 20/7/1841

Meaning: 'big'

Variant: Arrum Arrum

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: The two 'D'Alton Peaks' were named after William D'Alton who emigrated from Ireland during the 1850's gold rushes, and moved to Halls Gap in the late 1870's. Many of his family became strongly associated with the area. (Calder 1987).


Fyans Creek: Barri yalug (Parri yalook)

Grid Reference: not applicable

Primary Reference: G.A. Robinson Journal 14/4/1843.

Meaning: Yalug = river, Barri = running; hence 'running river/creek'., Hercus pers comm

Variants: Warre yalloke; Merputyal

Supporting Reference: Chauncy 1862-66 in Smyth 1878:207

Discussion: this periodical creek had not been given a European name in 1843 when Robinson discovered its traditional name; Fyans Creek is listed in Balliere 1865; named after Captain Foster Fyans (1790-1870), a commandant of the Border Police, Police Magistrate, and Commissioner for Crown Lands in Portland Bay District in the late 1830's and early 1840's. Before a bridge was constructed over the creek, at the entrance to Halls Gap, it was known as the 'Black Gutter' (Calder 1987).


Glenelg River: Bugara River (Bukara)

Grid Reference: not applicable

Primary Reference: G.A. Robinson Journal 26/8/1841

Meaning: 'river'., J.H. Jackson 1869 in Smyth 1878

Variants: Bucarere, Bokarrer, Bocar, Baaker, Barker, Bokarker, Wurri-wurri

Supporting References: Robinson Papers Vol. 65, part 2; GAR Jnl. 23/4/45, Tyers in Smyth 1878; Thornly in Smyth 1878; H.B. Lane 1869 in Smyth 1878:187.

Discussion: The Bugara gundidj (Jardwadjali) clan belonged to Bugara (see Clark 1990). The 'Glenelg River' was named by Mitchell on the 31/7/1836 after 'the Right Honorable the Secretary of State for the Colonies, according to the usual custom'. Mitchell first named this river the 'Aboukir'. He then changed this to the 'Bourke', finally settling on 'Glenelg'. Aboukir is the name associated with several features immediately to the south and east of Al-Iskandariyah (Alexandria), the famous Mediterranean seaport on the Nile

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Delta. To the east of Alexandria is the Aboukir Promontory terminating at Aboukir Point, upon which is situated Aboukir Castle, about 20km east of Alexandria; beyond the point is Aboukir Island at the entrance of Aboukir Bay. Aboukir was the scene of a number of significant events in Napoleonic times (Eccleston 1985). The editor of Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine (Vol. xv, Jan-Jun 1839) was hostile to the name ‘Glenelg River’:

they had at length come in sight of the river which they were to add to British discoveries and which is henceforth to remain the only trophy of the somnolent secretary for the colonies. We presume that with all his official considerations, the remarkable placidity, combined with the remarkable shallowness of his new discovery, may have involuntarily influenced the gallant Major in his giving it the name of Glenelg.

(Mitchell 1839; Blackwood’s Edinburgh Magazine vol. xv, Jan-June 1839: Wells 1848; Blake 1977; Andrews 1986; Calder 1987).


Gog and Magog: Banjin yalug (Banyin yalook)

Grid Reference: 7324-2-2:248164

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl 11/4/1843

Meaning: Banji may be connected with banjin ‘vegetable food’, Yalug = stream / creek ., Hercus pers comm.

Variant: Punyen alloke

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: there is a Mt. Gog and a Mt. Magog in Eastern Victoria (Map Sheet 8222). In Ezekial chapter 38, Gog is described as the ruler of a land known as Magog. Two gargoyles in the Royal Arcade in Collins Street, Melbourne are known as ‘Gog and Magog’.


The Grampians: Gariwerd (Gariwerd)

Primary Reference: G.A. Robinson Journal 11/6/1841

Meaning: The [ - underlined ] Mountain Range, Hercus (pers. comm)

Variants: Currewurt, Erewurrr [ sic ].

Supporting Reference: GAR Papers Vol. 65

Discussion: in the ethnographic literature it is possible to find six names applied to ‘The Grampians’. These are ‘Tolotmugo’, ‘Currewurt’, ‘Murraibuggum’, ‘Armooroonong gatchin’, ‘Naram Naram’, and ‘Cowa’. ‘Armooroonong gatchin’, ‘Naram Naram’ and ‘Cowa’ are rejected on the grounds that they are identified by Robinson as specific locality names. ‘Murraibuggum’ and ‘Tolotmutgo’ are rejected on the grounds that they originate from languages foreign to the Jardwadjali and Djab wurrung clans that owned the Grampian Mountains.

'Currewurt', reconstructed as Gariwerd, is the local Jardwadjali name and thus has the greatest merit. George Robinson recorded this name when he was visiting Mt. Dundas on the 11th of June 1841 whilst he was staying at 'Conongwootong’, the Whyte Brothers' station. Thus he is in Jardwadjali country, so presumably’ his informants were Jardwa speakers. His journal entry is as follows: ‘Cur.re.wurt: Grampians’. Robinson has a second entry for this name in his vocabulary papers: ‘Ere.wur.rr, country of the Grampians’ (GAR Papers Vol. 65, Part 2). This name was obtained on the 15/4/1841 at Lake Keilambete, and is included with Djargurd wurrung vocabulary. During this time he was visited by the Bulugbara (Djab wurrung) clan from Lake Bolac, and it is possible that he included several of their words in this list. Djab wurrung and Jardwadjali were linguistically similar. Nevertheless ‘Errewur.rr’ is cognate with ‘Curr.re.wurt’. Western Victorian Aboriginal words never began with vowels, and in this instance Robinson has failed to hear the initial consonant.

In correspondence with Dr Luise Hercus of the Australian National University, a linguist and acclaimed authority on western Victorian

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Aboriginal languages, the following endorsement of Gariwerd was received.

I am convinced that Gar written Cowa etc. means 'pointed mountain'; it is cognate with the word for 'nose'. The -i is definitely the particularising suffix -i (Hercus 1986:84), 'wurd' is werd which appears in werdug 'his shoulder: the preceding labial' and the following retroflex consonant lead to a strongly rounded vowel which would have been transcribed as u in wurt. The compound simply means 'mountain range'. I don't normally believe in placenames being descriptive - they rarely are in those areas which I know anything about - but I really do think it is so here; probably it was a general term meaning mountain range which is specialised for the[ - underlined ] mountain range, meaning the Grampians (Hercus pers. comm.). The source of the name Ngarra mananinja gadjin (Armooroonong gatchin) is W.H. Wright (11/10/1858 in VPRS 2896). In his list he notes that this means 'the Grampians Range'. However analysis of Robinson's records reveals that this is in fact the name of Red Man's Bluff, meaning 'having water in one's hands', and is not a general name.

The source for Ngaram Ngaram (Naram-naram) is Chauncy (1862-66 in Smyth 1878:208 (Vol.2). In his list he records this name as being that of 'the Grampian Range'. Once again Robinson's information suggests this is the name of at least two peaks - one in the Mt. Difficult Range and D'Alton Peak (1022m) and not a general name. Another fact that argues against it being a general term is the fact that Robinson has listed a specific clan associated with one of these peaks named Ngaram Ngaram balug. Clan names generally took their names from specific places or named features, such as waterholes and mountains. Ngaram Ngaram means 'big'.

Gar (Cowa) was first listed by S. Wilson (1869 in Smyth 1878:178, Vol. 2) as a general name for the Grampians. 'Cowa' is in fact a generic term meaning 'pointed mountain' and is cognate with nose. It often appears in the names of certain peaks. Presumably Wilson pointed to the Grampians and asked his informants what they were called; they simply replied 'cowa' (mountains). Gar also refers to a specific peak in the Mount Difficult Range.

Murraibuggum [Dhauwurd wurrung ('Gunditjmara')] is included with a list of vocabulary of the language spoken about the Rivers Crawford, Stokes, and the lower parts of the Wannon and Glenelg given by Charles Tyers (1842 in Smyth 1878:66 (Vol. 2). He has 'Murrai-bug-gum - Grampians'. This is presumably the Dhauwurd wurrung name for the Grampians. Dhauwurd wurrung is more popularly known as 'Gunditjmara'. We know from McLeod (in Smyth 1878:85) and Dawson (1881) that 'Muurai'/'Marrii' means 'stone'.

Tolotmutgo (Wada wurrung language) is the earliest name we have for the Grampians mountains. It is found in the diary of Charles Tyers (26/2/1840). It was learned from 'Billy', his Wada wurrung balug companion. The Wada wurrung balug clan belonged to the Barrabool Hills, near Geelong, and spoke the Wada wurrung language. The difficulty with this name is that it was not used by the local Djab wurrung and Jardwadjali clans who owned the Grampian mountains.

When Major Thomas L. Mitchell (11,13 July 1836) first observed this range he simply referred to them as the 'Coast Mountains' and the 'Coast Range'. His first conferred name was the 'Gulielmian Mountains' in honour of the current ruler King William the 4th (Gulielmi Quarti Regis). Stapylton, Mitchell's second-in-command, referred to the range as Gulielmean, Gulielman, and the Blue Gulielmean Mountains. It was not until October that Mitchell began to use 'The Grampians' or 'The Grampians of the South'. In later publications of his fieldbook Mitchell consistently used 'The Grampians'. For example in his

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1839 publication of his expedition he noted for July 15, 1836:

The capes on the coast, I was then approaching, were chiefly distinguished with the names of navel heroes; and as such capes were but subordinate points of the primitive range, I ventured to connect this summit with the name of the sovereign in whose reign the extensive, valuable, and interesting region below was first explored; and, I confess, it was not without some pride, as a Briton, that I 'more Majorum', gave the name of the Grampians, to these extreme summits of the southern hemisphere.

Mitchell named this range after the Grampian range in Scotland, despite the fact that its resemblance to the Grampians of his homeland is not particularly strong (Calder 1987). The Grampian region in Scotland comprises the former counties of Kincardine, Aberdeen, Banff, and most of Moray. It coincides in large measure with the northeast of Scotland as generally understood. The area is bounded by the Monadhlaith mountains on the west and by the Grampians and their foothills to the south. The word 'Grampian' itself is derived from a transcription error. Writing of a battle which took place in the mountainous region in Scotland, the first century historian subsequently misspelt the words as 'Mons Grampius', and from this word 'Grampian' is derived (Stanton 1988).


Hollow Mountain: Wudjub-guyun (Wutjup-guyun)

Grid Reference: 7324-2-2:231159

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl. 11/4/1843

Meaning: 'Spear in the middle'; 'guyun' = 'stabbing spear'; 'wudjub' = stomach, heart, insides., Hercus 1986

Variant: Witchupkoyon

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: 'Hollow Mountain' is presumably of descriptive origin, as the features in a natural amphitheatre (Calder 1987).


McKenzie Falls: Migunang wirab (Mekunang wirap)

Grid Reference: 7323:250917

Primary Source: Thornly in Smyth 1878

Meaning: According to Thornly 'konong' means a 'hill or impediment of any kind', but generally 'gunung' is a word meaning 'river'. 'Migunang wirab' means 'blackfish floating on top of the water' (Hercus pers. comm). Wirab = blackfish.

Variants: Mekononongweerap; Konong; Mee-coonory-werap

Supporting References: Surveyor General in Smyth 1878; Stanton 1988

Discussion: This waterfall takes its name from the MacKenzie River, so named by Mitchell on the 21st of July 1836, after a friend in the Peninsular War, Captain MacKenzie. Sometimes listed as 'McKenzie Falls'. Described in Bailliere's 1865 Gazetter as 'a magnificent waterfall 100 feet in height'. The falls have two recorded traditional names; 'gunung', written as 'konong' in the literature, meaning 'river', and 'Migunang wirab', written as 'Mekonongweerap', which means 'blackfish' (wirab) floating on top of the water'. Thornly understood the latter words to mean 'the black fish cannot get any higher up'. Stanton (1988:9) translated these words as where the blackfish can no longer swim upstream', and considered them an apt name for the falls.


Middleton Peak: Warrirburra (Warrirburra)

Grid Reference: 7423-4-3:334783

Primary Reference: Gar Jnl 13/4/1843

Meaning: unknown

Variant: Warereerburro

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

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Discussion: 'Middleton Peak' is named after an early pioneer in the area; possibly R. Middleton who was at the landing of Gallipoli in April 1915. Earliest known listing is the 1920's Land Department Map (Calder 1987).


Mt. Abrupt: Mud-dadjug (Murd-dajook)

Grid Reference: 7322:194378

Primary Reference: Robinson Journal 5/5/1841

Meaning: mud-dadjug = 'blunt, useless (his) arm', presumably a reference to a mythological Ancestor ., Hercus pers. comm.

Variants: Muttetchoke, Mautterchoke, Muttechoke, Muterchoke, Muttichoke, Moutajup

Supporting References: Robinson Journal 10/7/1841; Presland 1977:77; Robinson 1841 Report; Robinson Papers Vol. 65.

Discussion: Moutajup is a Parish in the County of Dundas. The Mud-dadjug gundidj (Djab wurrung) clan was centred at Mud-dadjug (see Clarke 1990). 'Mt.Abrupt' was descriptively named by Mitchell on the 9th of September 1836 on account of its 517 metre precipice rising from the plain. He climbed the peak on the 14th of September; Robinson climbed in on the 4th of July 1841.


Mt. Cassell: Didjun (Didjun)

Grid Reference: 7423:413802

Primary Reference: GAR sketch 18/7/1841 in Papers Vol. 63, part I.

Meaning: unknown

Variants: Tichon; Lychon; Tychon

Supporting References: GAR 20/7/1841 in Papers Vol. 65, Part 2; GAR Jnl 20/7/1841; GAR Jnl 13/4/1843

Discussion: 'Mt. Cassell' was named by the Frenchman Peter de May, who, along with his family, was the first orchardist at Pomonal in 1865. Peter de May named the peak behind his land 'Mons Cassel', after a hill in his native Normandy (Kingston 1989).


Mt. Difficult: Gar (Gar)

Grid Reference: 7323:282030

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl 13/4/1843

Meaning: 'pointed mountain', cognate with nose (Hercus pers. comm. 9/10/89)

Variant: Cower

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: 'Mt. Difficult' is descriptive of terrain. Earliest known citing is an 1872 Lands Department Map (Blake 1977; Calder 1987).


Mt. Lang: Jaranula (Yaranula)

Grid Reference: 7323-2-1:329684

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl 20/7/1843

Meaning: unknown

Variants: Annollar; Yarernooler

Supporting Reference: GAR Jnl 13/4/1843

Discussion: 'Mt. Lang' is first listed on the 1933 Lands Department Map.


Mt. Lubra: Warrina-burb (Warrina-burb)

Grid Reference: 7423:342741

Primary Reference: GAR Sketch 20/7/1841 in Papers Vol. 65

Meaning: burb = hill., Hercus pers. comm.

Variants: Worrennerborrope, Wanenoberupt, Warrennerborrope

Supporting Reference: GAR Jnl 13/4/1843

Discussion: 'Mt. Lubra' is first listed on the 1920 Lands Department Map; presumably descriptive.


Mt. McIvor: Ngumadj (Ngumatj)

Grid Reference: 7323-1-2:327885

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl 11/4/1843

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Meaning: unknown

Variant: Ummut

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: ‘Mt. McIvor’ is first listed on the 1933 Lands Department Map.


Mt. Nelson: Marum Marum (Marum Marum)

Grid Reference: 7323:286582

Primary Reference: GAR Sketch 20/7/1841 in Papers Vol. 65

Meaning: unknown

Variants: Marrum Marrum; Marrun Marrun

Supporting Reference: GAR Jnl 11/4/1843

Discussion: ‘Mt. Nelson’ has not been found on historical maps before 1970.


Mt. Rosea: Bugiga-mirgani (Bukika-mirkani)

Grid Reference: 7423:331821

Primary Reference: GAR Sketch 20/7/1841 in Papers Vol. 65

Meaning: unknown

Variants: Bokekermerkarne

Supporting Reference: not applicable

Discussion: The earliest known listing ‘Mt. Rosea’ is the 1920 Lands Department Map. Local lore has it that this peak was given this name in the 1910’s after the very rare Pultineai Rosea which grows on the summit. Before this it was known as ‘Goat Rock’ or ‘Goat Peak’ (D’Alton 195-?; Blake 1977; Calder 1987).


Mt. Stapylton: Gunigalg (Gunigalk)

Grid Reference: 7324:236150

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl 11/4/1843

Meaning: 'manure stick (or tree or bone)', 'galg' = 'bone'., Hercus 1986

Variant: Konegalk

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: 'Mt. Stapylton', so named by Major Mitchell in 1836 after his Second-in Command, Granville Chetwynd Stapylton.


Mt. Sturgeon: Wurgarri (Wurkarri)

Grid Reference: 7323:186352

Primary Reference: Robinson Journal 26/6/1841

Variants: Wurcurri, Workarre

Meaning: ‘black’; Hercus (pers. comm 9/10/89)

Supporting Reference: Robinson Papers Vol. 65

Discussion: The Wurgarri gundidj (Djab wurrung) clan was centred at Wurgarri (see Clark 1990). 'Mt. Sturgeon' was named by Mitchell on the 13th of September, 1836, after an officer-colleague, Lieutenant-Colonel Richard Henry Sturgeon (Mitchell 1838; Sexton 1907; Blake 1977). Sturgeon, born c. 1781, served in the Peninsula from April 1809 until his death in March 1814. As a member of the Royal Staff Corps he undertook general engineering tasks as well as sketching and mapping. On the 19th there was a sharp encounter between the 3rd Division and the French rear-guard at Vic (-en-) Bigorre, about 20 km north of Tarbes (at the base of the Pyrenees on the French side), 'which cost the British the life of one of their most able engineer officers, Colenol Sturgeon (Eccleston 1985). The mountain also has the appearance of a sturgeon head (Calder 1987). Climbed by the surveyor, Charles Tyers, on the 21st of February 1840, and George Robinson on the 1st of July 1841.


Mt. Victory: Bagara (Bakara)

Grid Reference: 7323:284879

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl 11/4/1843

Meaning: could mean ‘straighten’, Hercus Pers.Comm.

Variant: Buckerer

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

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Discussion: 'Mt. Victory' was named by Fred D'Alton, a local guide, for the end of World War 1. Previously known as 'The Bluff'. Listed on the 1920 Lands Department Map.


Mt. William: Duwul (Duwil)

Grid Reference: 7423:417712

Primary Reference: G.A. Robinson Journal in Presland 1980:106

Variants: Tool, Toal, Tooal, Tooel, Dhole, Duwil, Tuuwuul

Meaning: 'The Mountain', Hercus (pers. comm 23/10/89)

Supporting References: Robinson Journal 3/8/1841; Presland 1980; Robinson Papers Vol. 65 Part 2; Robinson Papers Vol. 63 Part 1; Tyers 1840 Report in Kerr 1841; Tyers 1840 in Smyth 1878: Kenyon 1928; Dawson 1881; Wright 1858; Connolly in Howitt Papers (SLV)

Discussion: The Duwul balug (Djab wurrung) clan belonged to Duwul (see Clark 1990). Arrowsmith's 1853 map of Victoria has Mt. William 'To-ol' (SLV 820A). Mt. William 'To-ol' appears on an 1866 map of the Wimmera and Loddon Districts (SLV 1866). 'Mt. William' was named by Mitchell after William IV, the King of England at the time Mitchell 'discovered the Grampians'. On the night of the 14th of July 1836, Mitchell and others of his expedition spent the night on the summit, and left a marker there. Robinson climbed the peak on the 14th of April 1843.

Mitchell had originally named this peak 'Mt. Blue', 'Mt. True Blue' and later 'Mt. Royal'. Stapylton in his journal noted that the peak was named Mt. Blue in 'contradistinction of Mount Blanc'. It was subsequently given King William's name to maintain the royal connection. There is another Mt William in Victoria.


Mt. William Creek: Baribial (Paribial)

Primary Reference: Wright 11/10/1858 in VPRS 2896

Variant: Barrai beal

Meaning: 'bial' = 'red gum', 'Bar' = 'river' (Hercus 1986), hence 'red gum river'.

Supporting References: not applicable.

Discussion: 'Mt. William Creek' is a tributary of Wimmera River, that rises in Mt. William, hence its name. The earliest known reference to this name is Wright's 1858 list. In literature from the 1840's this creek was often called the 'Little Wimmera River'.


Mt. Zero: Mura Mura (Moora Moora)

Grid Reference: 7324:220168

Primary Reference: Robinson Journal 1/8/1841

Variants: Moora Moora; Morrer Morrer; Morrer Merrager; Morrer Morerberup; Mormor Morremerup

Meaning: unknown

Supporting References: Robinson Journal 11/6/1841, 26/6/1841; GAR Papers Vol. 65; Presland 1980:110, 159.

Discussion: The Mura Mura gundidj (Jardwadjali) clan belonged to Mura Mura (see Clark 1990). A pastoral run was named 'Moora Moora' in the 1840's. 'Mt. Zero' was named by Mitchell after a spell of icy weather. Several references record Malubgar (Mullopgar, Mullupcar, Mullup-Cowa), Mallup cower) as an alternative name for this peak. Malubgar means 'that mountain, over there', and not 'little mountain' as suggested by Blake and Lovett (1962).


Red Man Bluff: Ngarra Mananinja Gadjin (Ngarra Manyangin gadjin)

Grid Reference: 7423:414747

Primary reference: GAR Sketch 18/7/1841 in Papers Vol. 63 Part I.

Meaning: 'having water in one's hand', Hercus 23/10/1989

Variants: Arrer muragotchin; Murrermonener gotchin; Murrer monenergutchin; Arrermerergotchin; Arrermurergotchin

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Supporting References: Robinson Journal 20/7/1841 Sketch; GAR Papers Vol. 65, Part 2; GAR Journal 13/4/1843 sketch.

Discussion: Some of the source literature confuses 'Red Man Bluff' with Mt. William, which clearly known as 'Duwul'. ‘Red Man Bluff’ was so named because it has the appearance of a huge man, in red stone, on the precipitous side of the Mount William Range (Calder 1987). Earliest known reference is the Lands Department 1920 Grampians Tourist Map.


Rose’s Gap: Barigar (Parigar)

Grid Reference: 7323:262008

Primary Reference: Wilson 1869 in Smyth 1878

Meaning: 'Gar' (gowa) = pointed mountain (Hercus pers. comm). 'Bar' = 'river'. Hence ‘mountain stream’. Incorrectly given as ‘the middle of the mountains’ by Wilson.

Variant: Barregowa

Supporting Reference: not applicable

Discussion: 'Rose(s) Gap‘, originates from Phillip Davis Rose, who settled Rosebrook station in March 1843, although he leased 'La Rose' and 'Mokepilly' in 1842-3. In a letter from 1853, Rose simply referred to the entrance as 'The Gap'. C.B. Hall recounted that he had explored this 'wild and beautiful pass' before Rose's occupation of Rosebrook, however he felt it was not worth occupying for a heifer station. Presumably the name dates from Rose's selection of the area, and was established usage by 1853 (Arrowsmith 1853; Hall 6/9/1853 in Bride 1898; Rose undated in Bride 1898). The creation of both Barigar (Parigar) and Jananginj Njaui (Yananginj Njawi, Victoria Gap) is found in the following mythological story:

Tchingal was the name of a monstrous, huge and ferocious female emu, who lived on the flesh of the creatures she caught. Her home was at a place called Wombagruk in the mallee scrub, and there she had her nest, which contained her only egg, and on which she was, at the time sitting.

One day Wa, the crow, happened to pass that way. As soon as she saw him, Tchingal left her nest, and ran after him in a furious manner. Wa, aware of the danger, fled across toward Gariwerd (meaning 'The mountain range', 'The Grampians'), and ran into a hole which tunneled under one of the mountains there. Tchingal rushed at the mountain and struck at it with her foot. The mountain split in two, and that is how Barigar (pronounced 'Parigar', meaning 'mountain stream', 'Rose’s Gap') was made.

The crow flew on, with the emu in pursuit. They came to another hole in the mountains, and once again the crow flew into it, and once more the emu struck at it with her foot. That is how Jananginj Njaui (pronounced 'Yananginj Njawi', meaning 'the sun will go', 'Victoria Gap'), through which Bugara (pronounced 'Bukara', the Glenelg River) issues into the Western Plains, was made. By then the sun was so low on the horizon and Tchingal made her camp there for the night. This is why the place has since been called Jananginj Njaui, which means 'the sun will go' (Massola 1968).


Victoria Gap: Jananginj Njaui (Yananginj Njawi)

Grid Reference: 7323:125852

Primary Reference: Thornly in Smyth 1878

Meaning: 'the sun will go' (Hercus pers. comm 23/10/89) Incorrectly given as 'the camp of the Emu's foot' by Massola (1960). Njaui = sun (Hercus 1986).

Variants: Ganangenyaivie; Janangen yawiwee

Supporting Reference: Surveyor General in Smyth 1878.

Discussion: 'Victoria Gap' presumably originates from the fact that the feature is in the Victoria Range. The earliest reference to this toponym is

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Grid Reference: 7323-1-1:331951

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl 11/4/1843

Meaning: 'Knee-top of arm', Hercus Pers.Comm.

Variant: Buc.he.tuc.ing

Supporting Reference: not applicable.


Unnamed peak in Mt. Difficult Range: Mirri-gurag (Mirri-gurak)

Grid Reference: 7323-1-1:327942

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl 11/4/1843

Meaning: 'hole in the sand' ., Hercus (pers. comm)

Variant: Merregoruc

Supporting Reference: not applicable.


Unnamed peak in Mt. Difficult Range: Bunibridj (Bunipritj)

Grid Reference: 7323-4-4:335913

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl 11/4/1843

Meaning: unknown

Variant: Boneneprit

Supporting Reference: not applicable


Unnamed peak in Mt. Difficult Range: Nguddingiri (Nguttingiri)

Grid Reference: 7323-1-1:332974

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl 11/4/1843

Meaning: unknown

Variant: Uttenerre

Supporting Reference: not applicable.


Serra Range

Unnamed peak in Serra Range: Wudjugidj (Wutjukitj)

Grid Reference: 7323:247506

Primary Reference: Robinson sketch 19/6/1841 in Papers Vol. 63, Part 1.

Meaning: 'belonging to the man', a probable reference to mythological Ancestor. Hercus 23/10/89; wudju = man

Variant: Wottokite

Supporting Reference: Robinson Papers Vol. 65, Part 2


Unnamed peak in Serra Range: Djadji-djawara (Djatji-djawara)

Grid Reference: 7322:214463

Primary Reference: Robinson sketch 19/6/1841 in Papers Vol. 63, Part 1.

Meaning: 'Djadji' means sister., Hercus 1986:204

Variants: Judgejowwerre; Judgegowwerer

Supporting Reference: Robinson Papers Vol. 65, Part 2


Unnamed peak in Serra Range: Gundudarin (Gundudarin)

Grid Reference: 7423-3-4:341753

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl 13/4/1843

Meaning: unknown

Variants: Conedodorein

Supporting Reference: not applicable


Mt. William Range

Unnamed peak in Mt. William Range: Durd-durd (Durt-durt)

Grid Reference: 7423-3-4:400661

Primary Reference: GAR Jnl 13/4/1843

Meaning: stars, Hercus Pers.Comm.

Variant: Totote

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

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JARDWADJALI AND DJAB WURRUNG NAMES OF LANDSCAPE FEATURES IMMEDIATELY SURROUNDING THE GRAMPIANS NATIONAL PARK

(I) Names already in use, although unrecognizable in their Anglicized form:

Cherrypool: Djarabul (Djarabul)

Grid Reference: 7323:055923

Primary Reference: Thornly in Smyth 1878

Meaning unknown

Variants: Jahrapool, Jarapoohl, Cherrypool, Jerripool

Supporting References: Surveyor General in Smyth 1878; Blake and Lovett 1962; Land Conservation Council South West Area, District 2, 1979


Cherrypool Road: Djarabul Road (Djarabul)

Grid Reference: not applicable

Primary Reference: Thornly In Smyth 1878

Meaning: unknown

Variants: Jahrapool, Jarapoohl, Cherrypool, Jerripool

Supporting References: Surveyor General in Smyth 1878; Blake and Lovett 1962; Land Conservation Council South West Area, District 2, 1979


Gatum: Gadim-gadim (Gadim-gadim)

Grid Reference: 7223:826595

Primary Reference: Balmoral 7223 Map Sheet, 1983

Meaning: boomerang, Hercus 1986

Variant: Gatum

Supporting Reference: not applicable


Ming Ming Swamp: retain

Grid Reference: 7323:060680

Primary Reference: Thornly in Smyth 1878

Meaning: unknown

Variants: Ming Ming, Wing Wing

Supporting Reference: Surveyor General in Smyth 1878

Discussion: Wing Wing is a Parish in the County of Dundas


Mirrinatwa: Mirrinaduwa (Mirrinaduwa)

Grid Reference: 7322:248589; 7323:202569

Primary Reference: Southern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: 'Mirri' means 'a hole'; presumably means 'a hole in the ground or a cave'. Hercus (pers. comm)

Variants: Mirrinatwa, Mirranatwa

Supporting Reference: not applicable

Discussion: Mirranatwa is a Parish in the County of Dundas.


Mt. Bechpa: Mt. Bebdja (Bebdja)

Grid Reference: 7323:020812

Primary Reference: Thornly in Smyth 1878

Meaning: 'beb' = white gum 'Eucalyptus viminalis'; dja = ground/country. Hercus 1986.

Variant: Bepcha

Supporting Reference: Surveyor General in Smyth 1878

Discussion: 'Bechpa' is a Parish in the County of Dundas. This peak was once known as 'Conical Hill'.


Mt. Bepcha Picnic Grounds: Mt. Bebdja Picnic Ground

Grid Reference: 7323:020812

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Primary Reference: Thornly in Smyth 1878

Meaning: 'beb' = white gum 'Eucalyptus viminalis'; dja = ground/country. Hercus 1986.

Variant: Bepcha

Supporting Reference: Surveyor General in Smyth 1878

Discussion: 'Bechpa' is a Parish in the County of Dundas. This peak was once known as 'Conical Hill'.


Woohlpooer Swamp: Wulbuwa Swamp (Walpuwa)

Grid Reference: 7323:067786

Primary Reference: Surveyor-General in Smyth 1878

Meaning: 'to burn very fiercely'. Hercus (pers. comm)

Variants: Woohlpooa, Woohlpooer

Supporting Reference: Thornly in Smyth 1878

Discussion: Woohlpooer is a Parish in the County of Dundas. Also known as 'Glenisla Swamp'.


(ii) Names of features with English names:

Black Range (West): Burrunj Range (Burrunj)

Grid Reference: not applicable

Primary Reference: Surveyor General in Smyth 1878

Meaning: 'darkness' (Hercus 1986)

Variants: Burrong, Burn-Burn, Burn

Supporting References: Chauncy in Smyth 1878: Massola 1970; Blake 1977: Ararat District Historical Notes 1980; Hercus 1986.

Discussion: Burrong South and North are Parishes in the County of Borung. 'Black Range' is considered descriptive by Blake (1977); earliest known listing is Arrowsmith's 1853 Map; described in Bailliere's (1865) Victorian Gazetteer as 'a range of low, well-grassed mountains running north and south about 12 miles. They lie 20 miles west of the Grampians and the same distance north west of the Victoria Range'. This is a common name in Victoria; at least five other ranges share this name.


Dundas Range: Grimgundidj (Grimgundidj)

Grid Reference: not applicable

Primary Reference: G.A. Robinson Journal 26/8/1841

Meaning: 'gundidj' means 'belonging to', Clarke 1990

Variant: Grimgunjit

Supporting Reference: not applicable

Discussion: Mt. Dundas was named by Mitchell on the 14th of September 1836 after Sir David Dundas (1735-1820) Commander-in-Chief of the British Army 1809-11; originally referred to as 'Dundas Groupe' or 'Dundas Group' (Ham 1847; Wells 1848: Arrowsmith 1853; Bailliere 1865). His real achievement was the introduction of a standard system of drill, movement, manoeuvre and operations for the British Army. It was to Dundas in 1811 that the teenager Mitchell had applied to join the Army (Eccleston 1985). The name 'Dundas' lives on in the County of Dundas, the Shire of Dundas, the Dundas River, (a tributary of the Wannon), and Mount Dundas (GR Balmoral WD 809536) on the Dundas Range - Mitchell's 'Dundas group'.


Glenisla Swamp (1): Ludjug Swamp (Ludjoog)

Grid Reference: 7323-4-2:086783

Primary Reference: Thornly in Smyth 1878

Meaning: bare, empty, naked, Hercus (pers. comm)

Variant: Lootchook

Supporting Reference: not applicable

Discussion: presumably the swampy area at the junction of Carters Channel and Konangiedora Creek (see Mt. Bepcha Map Sheet 7323-4-2) east of Glenisla Home Station.

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Glenisla Swamp (II): Gardugwil (Gartookwil)

Grid Reference: 7323-4-2:095780

Primary Reference: Thornly in Smyth 1878

Meaning: 'full of owls'. Hercus (pers. comm 23/10/89)

Variants: Kartukil; Cartuccle

Supporting Reference: Surveyor General in Smyth 1878

Discussion: possibly refers to the swampy area on Red Rock Creek, east of Glenisla Home Station (see Mt. Bepcha Map Sheet 7323-4-2).


Halls Gap: Budja Budja (Boodja Boodja)

Grid Reference: 7423:350882

Primary Reference: Robinson Journal 11/4/1843 in Clark 1988

Meaning: unknown

Variant: Budger Budger

Supporting Reference: not applicable

Discussion: the name 'Halls Gap' is derived from Charles Browning Hall, an overlander, who squatted at 'La Rose' and 'Mokepilly' from 1841 until December 1842, and who 'discovered' the gap or opening by following a 'native track into the mountains'. This entrance was subsequently given his name. For example, when Robinson visited this region in April 1843, he refers to the 'gap in the mountain called Halls Gap'. Hall was one of the earliest squatters in the northern region of the Grampians occupying the vacant country between the foot of Mount William and Brigg's land at 'Ledcourt', an area that was later to become three properties 'La Rose', 'Lexington' and 'Mokepilly'. Hall, however, may not have been the first European to squat on this country, for Robinson's 1841 journal makes it quite clear that Alfred Taddy Thomsom had formed a station there in March 1841, but in consequence of several robberies by local Aboriginal clans he had vacated the country in May 1841. From the beginning of his occupation of Thomson's abandoned station, Hall viewed his stay there as temporary; he remained there only as long as necessary, during which time a search for a more favourable spot might be prosecuted. By December 1842, he had found a more favourable spot, for in that month he moved to 'Glenmona' on the Bet Bet Creek, west of Maryborough.

It is ironic that Hall's name is revered and commemorated in the region for it is clear from his own account that his tenure was never going to be permanent; he was prepared to stay in the region only until he discovered a more favourable location for a run. Hence a transient overlander has come to have both a mountain pass and a settlement named in his honour.

Phillip David Rose leased La Rose and Mokepilly from 1842 until late 1843. By 1843 an outstation had been formed in the gap where Robinson noted there was good feed for cattle.

George Robinson, the Chief Protector of Aborigines, noted the following entry in his journal dated 1841:

3pm, the messenger returned and reported that 2 Jacalet at Mr. Hall's had been shot by Bill, Mr. Hall's cook - named 1. Yang .ar.re.min or Crip.be.ar.rer.min, 2. Mip.bur nin - and that the other natives had gone a long way.

The natives at Hall's were shot at Hall's hut; Hall was present. The natives showed me how they acted, said they told them to be off, pushed them out and then took up muskets and shot the two men as they were going away. They took away all their things and put them in the fire.

It is clear from Robinson's account that the killings took place in Hall's presence, presumably with his acquiescence. The implication is this, that his name is tainted and inappropriate for a settlement that is central to the

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promotion of Koorie heritage in the National Park.

The author Marcus Clarke in several of his short stories referred to Halls Gap as ‘Hell’s Gap’ and Elliott (1958) is of the view that ‘this may have been what the station people called it, perhaps facetiously’. For example, in January 1865, Clarke wrote, ‘my room [at Swinton station] affords through its open windows a glimpse of the distant ranges and of a break in them called ‘Hell's Gap’, which, when the sun sets, looks like a gorge of fire’. In his story entitled 'Bullockstown', a tale of Glenorchy, he referred to Hall's Gap as 'Bowlby's Gap'.

It is important to distinguish 'Hall's Gap', the name given to the mountain opening from 'Halls Gap' the settlement. Halls Gap the mountain pass is considerably older than Halls Gap the settlement. Indeed local histories are clear that the settlement had earlier names such as 'Stoneyville' (later Lower Halls Gap) and 'Boroughs Huts' (later Upper Halls Gap) (Calder 1987; Stanton 1988). After the squatters, the first known European settlers in the gap were Robert Graham and Sarah Parson, who, in 1862, rented the land where the Grampian Motel now stands, and the area was known as 'Bellfield".


Rosebrook Home Station Waterhole: Budjam budjam (Boojam boojam)

Grid Reference: 7323:189005, specific location not known.

Primary Reference: Thornly in Smyth 1878

Meaning: unknown

Variants: Bujam-bujam, Bugam Bugam

Supporting References: Surveyor-General in Smyth 1878; Carter 1898


Rosebrook Sheepwash Swamp: Jarragallam Swamp (Yarragallam)

Grid Reference: 7323-1-4:189005, specific location not known.

Primary Reference: Thornly in Smyth 1878

Meaning: (Y)allam = waterhole; Hercus 1986

Variants: Yarragullum; Yarrugallum

Supporting Reference: Surveyor-General in Smyth 1878


3) Rock Art Sites:

This list gives the current name, recommended alternative and suggested pronunciation:

Glenisla 1: Billimina Shelter (Billimina)

VAS Site No: 7323/011

Primary Reference: Mathew 1986

Meaning: unknown

Variants: 'Glenisla 1'; 'Initiation Rock'; 'Glenisla Rock'; 'Glenisla Painted Rock'; 'Red Rock'; 'Red Painted Rock'; 'Blackfellows Rock'; and 'Bellemenah'

Supporting References: Mathew 1899; Kenyon 1912; Halls 1967; Gunn 1985, 1989

Discussion: Discovered by Samuel Carter, the property holder of Glenisla Station, in 1859; and first described by John Mathew (1896, 1899) and A.S. Kenyon (1912). Mathew located the shelter on the Billaminah Creek in the Victoria Range. 'Billaminah Creek' subsequently came to be called 'Cultivation Creek'. It is recommended that this site be named Billimina Shelter, due to its proximity to Billimina Creek (Cultivation Creek).


Cave of Hands: Wab Manja Shelter (Wep Manya)

VAS Site No: 7323/004

Primary Reference: Northern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

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Meaning: Waap = red paint (Dawson 1881); and Manja = hands (Hercus 1986).

Variant: ‘Cave of Hands’

Supporting Reference: not applicable

Discussion: This art site takes it [ sic ] name from the fact that it has the greatest concentration of hand-stencils in the National Park. All of these appear to be the hands of adults. Given that the hands are stencilled in red pigment, the recommendation is that the site be renamed the local Aboriginal words for 'red ochre hands’. This is Wab Manja.


Camp of the Emu’s Foot: Jananginj Njaui Shelter (Yananginj Njawi)

VAS Site No: 7323/009

Primary Reference: Massola 1960

Meaning: 'the sun will go'., Hercus pers comm.

Variant: 'Camp of the Emu's Foot'

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: This art site was named 'Camp of the Emu Foot' by Massola (1960). Somehow he derived this name from Jananginj Njaui, the Jarwadjali name of Victoria Gap. This name in fact means 'the sun will go', which reveals the inadequacy of the present name.


Cultivation Creek 5: Gunangidura Shelter (Gunangidura)

VAS Site No: 7323/010

Primary Reference: Northern Grampians Outdoor Leisure Map, 1989

Meaning: 'guna' is the ubiquitous word for excrement., Hercus pers. comm.

Variant: 'Cultivation Creek 5'

Supporting References: Gunn 1985, 1989

Discussion: Discovered in 1962 by a party that included Aldo Massola. One of the many art sites associated with the Cultivation Creek watershed. The recommendation is that this site be named after the nearby Konangiedora Creek (Gunangidura).


Cave of Fishes: Larngibunja Shelter (Larngibunya)

VAS Site No: 7323/013

Primary Reference: Barrett 1943.

Meaning: 'lar' means 'stone' ., Hercus 1986.

Variants: 'Brimgower Cave'; 'Cave of Fishes'

Supporting References: Gunn 1985; 1989

Discussion: This art site was discovered in 1943 by Arthur Mathews, the owner of Brimgower Station, and named by Charles Barrett (1943). The site was named the Cave of Fishes because some of the figures were taken to represent small fish found in nearby Cultivation Creek. The recommendation is that this site's name be changed to Larngibunja (Larngebunyah) Shelter, after the Jarwadjali name for the Chimney Pots in the Victoria Range.


Cave of Ghosts: Ngamadjidj Shelter (Ngamadjidj)

VAS Site No: 7324/016

Primary Reference: Barrett 1943

Meaning: 'ngamadjidj' = 'white person' ., Hercus 1986.

Variant: 'Cave of Ghosts'

Supporting References: Massola 1962; Gunn 1985, 1989

Discussion: Massola (1962) believed the name 'Cave of Ghosts' originated from Barrett (1943), and was probably called this because the figures at the shelter are painted in white pipeclay. The recommendation is that given the motifs at this site are more likely to represent men, and that they are painted with white pigment, the local word for 'white person' would be more appropriate. This word is Ngamadjidj (Ngammatjitj).


Black Range 3: Burrunj Shelter (Burrunj)

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VAS Site N0. 7323/021

Primary Reference: Gunn 1985

Meaning: 'burrunj' means ‘darkness’., Hercus 1986

Variant: ‘Black Range 3'

Supporting Reference: Gunn 1989

Discussion: Discovered in 1963 and named after its location in the Black Range. The recommendation is that given this site's location in Burrunj (the Black Range), that this site be named Burrunj Shelter.


Black Range 2: Mugadgadjin Shelter (Mugadgadjin)

VAS Site No: 7323/023

Primary Reference: Gunn 1985

Meaning: 'gadjin' = water ., Hercus 1986.

Variant: 'Black Range 2'

Supporting Reference: Gunn 1989

Discussion: Discovered in 1963 and named after its location in the Black Range. The recommendation is that this shelter be named Mugadgadjin (Mucat catchin) Shelter, after the name of a spring at the eastern base of the Black Range. Gunn believes that this name may in fact refer to the spring below this shelter.


Flat Rock 1: Gulgurn Manja Shelter (Gulkurn Manya)

VAS Site No: 7324/013

Primary Reference: Gunn 1985

Meaning: 'hands of young people' ., Hercus pers. comm.

Variants: 'Flat Rock 1', 'Flat Rock Shelter'

Supporting Reference: Gunn 1989

Discussion: Discovered in 1956, this site was named 'Flat Rock Shelter' on account of the fact it is located on the northern flank of Flat Rock, the hill just south of Mt. Zero. This site has the greatest concentration of handprints in the National Park. All but one of these are the prints of childrens hands (c. 8-12 years). Given this, the recommendation is that the name of this site should reflect this concentration and be named Gulgurn Manja Shelter.


(4) Traditional Jarwadjali and Djab Wurrung names for pastoral stations:

In the course of research, traditional names were discovered for four pastoral properties in the vicinity of the National Park, and this information is here documented for the information of the current property owners and general public. The following entries are provided for the purpose of information only, and do not form part of the recommendations of this submission.


Glenisla Home Station: Lambrug (Lambrook)

Grid Reference: 7323:056780

Primary Reference: Thornly in Smyth 1878: 62,63

Meaning: 'a lot' Hercus 1969:100

Variants: Lambruk, Lambruck

Supporting Reference: not applicable

Discussion: Lambruk is a Parish in the County of Dundas. 'Glenisla' was named by Hector Norman Simson, a Scottish overlander who squatted on 96,000 acres in June 1843. He named the run 'Glen Isla' or 'Glenisla' after a kirkdom in the county of Angus, 20 miles from Balmoral Castle (Field 1977); or an island in Scotland (Sexton 1907).


Moochambilla: Mudjambula (Mujambula)

Grid Reference: 7323:075863

Primary Reference: 7323 Grampians Map Sheet, 1983

Meaning: 'the two of them pick something up'; with an unknown mythological reference., Hercus (pers. comm)

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Variant: Moochambilla

Supporting Reference: not applicable.

Discussion: this is the name of a pastoral property on the Cavendish-Horsham Road.


Mt. Sturgeon Home Station: Dulin gurgundidj (Dulin gurgundidj)

Grid Reference: 7322:154331

Primary Reference: Robinson Journal 5/5/1841

Meaning: 'belonging to red resin', 'Dulin' meaning 'Acacia resin' ., Hercus pers. comm.

Variants: Tolemut, Tolelewurt, Tolelinent conedeet, Tolimut konedeet, Tolinut konedeet, Tolelenut corroke, tolenut Koroke Konedeet, Tolelenat Garroke, Tolelewearrer

Supporting Reference: Robinson Journal 13/7/1841

Discussion: in 1839, Dr. Robert Martin (1798-1874), a Scottish overlander squatted at the foot of Mount Sturgeon and named his station 'Mt Sturgeon Home Station' after its proximity to this peak.


Rosebrook: Buyub budjun budjun (Booyub boodjun boodjun)

Grid Reference: 7323:189005

Primary Reference: Wilson 1869 in Smyth 1878

Meaning: buyub = pigface (Mesembryanthemum); the leaves were eaten for their salt content; budjun = matter from a wound or a boil; 'sleep' from the eyes; or phlegm (Hercus 1986).

Variants: Butchurn-butcharn; Boyop-butyum; Boyop-butyum-butyum

Supporting References: Connolly in Howitt Papers; Blake & Lovett 1962

Discussion: Philip Davis Rose occupied 64,000 acres on Boggy Creek, south of Horsham in 1843. This run was originally known as 'Huber Station'. 'Rosebrook' is a common name in Victoria, as it is a small agricultural village near Port Fairy; a small tributary of the MacKenzie River; and this pastoral station name.

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References

1. OFFICIAL MANUSCRIPT SOURCES

A. PUBLIC RECORD OFFICE OF VICTORIA

Wright (1858) in Registered Inward Correspondence to the Surveyor-General Board of Land and Works, 1856-73, VPRS 2896

B. NATIONAL MUSEUM OF VICTORIA

Robinson, G.A., Report of an expedition to the Aboriginal Tribes of the Western Interior during the months of March, April, May, June, July, and August, 1841, no accession number

C. ARCHIVES AUTHORITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES, SYDNEY

Chief Protector's Report of an Expedition to the Westward, 1842, 4/7153

2. OTHER MANUSCRIPT SOURCES

A: LA TROBE LIBRARY, MELBOURNE

Howitt, A.W., Papers. MS.9356

Tyers, C.J., Diaries and Letterbooks, MS.8151

Wright, W.H., Aboriginal language of the Wimmera District (11/10/1858), MS.6293

B: MITCHELL LIBRARY, SYDNEY

New South Wales Government Despatches relating to Aboriginal matters, Vol. 51, Ms. A1240. Robinson, G.A. Papers, including Letterbooks 1839-49, MSS. A 7045-52; Correspondence and other papers 1837-65, MS. A 7061; Correspondence and other papers 1838-49, MSS. A 7075-8; Miscellaneous papers 1839-49, MSS. A 7079-84.

3. CONTEMPORARY BOOKS AND ARTICLES

Bailliere's Victorian Gazetteer and Road Guide, containing the most recent and accurate information as to every place in the colony, compiled by R.P. Whitworth with map, F.F. Bailliere, Melbourne 1865.

Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, Vol.XLV, Jan-June 1839.

Carter, S., (1898) Reminiscences of early days in the Wimmera, The Author, Horsham.

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Bride, T.F., (1898) Letters from Victorian Pioneers..., Victorian Govt. Printer, Melbourne [reprinted 1969, 1983].

Dawson J., (1881) Australian Aborigines; the language and customs of several tribes of Aborigines in the Western District of Victoria, Robertson, Melbourne [reprinted 1981 by A.I.A.S].

Kerr, W., (1841) Kerr's Melbourne Almanac and Port Phillip Directory for 1841; a compendium of useful and accurate information connected with Port Phillip, Joseph Thompson, Melbourne. [reprinted Landsdown, Slattery & Co, Sydney, 1978]

Mathew, J., (1896) 'Notes on Aboriginal Rock Paintings in the Victoria Range, County of Dundas, Victoria'. Proc. Roy Soc. Vic. (n.s.) IX, pp. 29-33.

Mathew, J., (1899) Eaglehawk and Crow, Melbourne

Mitchell, T.L., (1839) Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia..., 2 vols, 2nd Edition, T & W Boone, London.

Smyth, R.B., (1878) The Aborigines of Victoria; with notes relating to the habits of the natives of other parts of Australia, Victorian Government Printer, Melbourne.

Wells, W.H., (1848) A Geographical Dictionary or Gazetteer of the Australian Colonies, Facsimile Edition 1970, The Council of the Library of N.S.W.


4. LATER WORKS

Andrews, A.E.J., (1986) Stapylton with Major Mitchell's Australia Felix Expedition; 1836 largely from the journal of Granville William Chetwynd Stapylton, Blubber Head Press, Hobart.

Ararat and District Historical Notes, 1980

Banfield, L.L., (1974) Green Pastures and Gold: A History of Ararat, Mullaya, Melbourne.

Barrett, C., & Croll, R.H. (1943) Art of the Australian Aboriginal, Melbourne.

Billis, R.V. & Kenyon, A.S., (1974) Pastoral Pioneers of Port Philip, Stockland Press, Melbourne.

Blake, L.J. (1977) Aboriginal Place Names, Rigby, Adelaide

Blake, L.J. & Lovett, K.H., (1962) Wimmera Shire Centenary: an historical account, Wimmera Shire Council, Horsham.

Calder, J., (1987) The Grampians a noble range, Victorian National Parks Association, Melbourne.

Christie, M.F., (1979) Aborigines in Colonial Victoria 1835-86, Sydney University Press, Sydney.

Clarke, I.D., (ed.) (1988) The Port Phillip Journals of George Augustus Robinson: 8 March - 7 April 1842 and 18 March - 29 April 1843, Monash Publications in Geography, No. 34, Clayton.

Clark, I.D., (1989a) Aboriginal Names for Landscape features in the Grampians National Park, A Report to the Victorian Tourism Commission, March.

Clark, I.D., (1989b)Gurriwurd Versus The Grampians: preliminary consultations with Western Victorian Koorie Community Representatives into the Proposed Name Changes to the

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Grampians National Park. A Report to the Victorian Tourism Commission, July.

Clark, I.D., (1989c) Rock Art Sites and Landscape Features in the Grampians National Park: Preferred Aboriginal names. A Report to the Victorian Tourism Commission, November, 49pp.

Clark, I.D., (1990) Aboriginal Languages and Clans: An Historical Atlas of Western and Central Victoria, 1800-1900, Monash Publications in Geography No. 37

D'Alton, J.R., 195 -) The Moora Savage, The Author, Murtoa.

Dixon, R.M.W., (1980) The Languages of Australia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Eccleston, G.C., (1985) Major Mitchell's 1836 Australia Felix Expedition, A report on a proposal for a 'Major Mitchell Long Distance Track' for Gardens and Environment Committee Victoria's 150th Anniversary Celebrations, Department of Conservation, Forests and Lands and Victoria's 150th Anniversary Celebration, 1984/85.

Elliot, B., (1958) Marcus Clarke, Oxford University Press.

Field J.F., (1977) Waggon wheels thro' the wildflowers, Hawthorn Press, Melbourne.

Gunn, R.G., (1983) Recommendations for The Protection of Aboriginal Art Sites in the Grampians, Victoria Occasional Report Series, Number II, Victoria Archaeological Survey

Gunn, R.G., (1985) Recommended Changes to Aboriginal Site Names in the Grampians, Unpublished Paper.

Gunn, R.G., (1989) Alternative Names for Rock Sites and Natural Features in the Grampians National Park, A Report to the Victorian Tourism Commission, March.

Halls, F., (1967) 'Temples of the Dream Time' in Walk, No. 18, pp.4-13

Hercus, L.A., (1986) Victorian Languages: A Late Survey, Pacific Linguistics Series B-No.77, Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, The Australian National University, Canberra.

Hercus, L.A., Personal Correspondence 9/10/1989, 23/10/1989, 5/4/1990, 23/4/1990, 7/5/1990, 23/5/1990.

Kenyon, A.S., (1912) 'Aboriginal Rock Paintings at Glen Isla - in Camping places of the Aborigines of S.E. Australia', Vic. Hist. Mag. II, p.97.

Kenyon, A.S., (ed) (1928) 'The Aboriginal Protectorate of Port Phillip' in Victorian Historical Magazine, 12:134-171.

Kingston, R., (1989) Good Country for a Grant, A History of the Stawell Shire, Shire of Stawell. Land Conservation Council., (1979) Report Southwest Area, District 2.

Massola, A., (1960) 'The Shelter at the Camp of the Emu's Foot' in Victorian Naturalist, 77, p.188.

Massola, A., (1962) 'The Cave of Ghosts' in Victorian Naturalist, 78, p.335.

Massola, A., (1968) Bunjil's Cave, Melbourne.

Massola, A., (1970) 'Notes on the Aborigines of the Stawell district' in Victorian Naturalist, 87:4-9.

Norman-Bail, M., (1958) Passing on the Torch or Before the Dawn. A Centenary Trilogy, by a Pathfinder, Berry, Anderson, Ballarat.

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