Leadbeater's Possum - Forest Commission of Victoria's submission to General Select Committee on Wildlife

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Description:
F Moulds, Chairman of the Forest Commission of Victoria (FCV), presented a submission to a Federal Government select committee investigating wildlife.

Record Citation: PROV VPRS 11563/P1/1089
Record URL: http://www.access.prov.vic.gov.au/public/component/daPublicBaseContainer?component=daViewSeries&entityId=11563
Agency: VA 534
Agency URL: http://access.prov.vic.gov.au/public/component/daPublicBaseContainer?component=daViewAgency&entityId=534
Date: 1971
Record Type: submission
Event Type: inquiry
Language: en
Copyright URL: http://prov.vic.gov.au/copyright
Related Resource URL:
Thumbnail URL:
User Tags: forestry, moulds, forestry commission of victoria, wildlife conservation, leadbeater's possum, forest, possum, conservation, bird, birds, victoria




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FCV submission 1.JPG FORESTS COMMISSION, VICTORIA


THE ROLE OF FORESTS IN WILDLIFE CONSERVATION


Evidence presented to the

ENQUIRY ON WILDLIFE CONSERVATION

conducted by the House of Representattives

Select Committee Melbourne, 1971


by


Dr. F. R. Moulds

Chairman

Forests Commission, Victoria


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FCV submission 2.JPG The forests of Victoria are managed to accommodate a number of different uses, and to provide a variety of products and services, as abudantly as is possible without detriment to their ability to continue production on a sustained [yield?] basis. Forestry has a long tradition of conservative use and protection of the vegetation, and hence the conservation of soil, water and wildlife. The management of forests has frequently been adapted to ensure conservation of variois species of wildlife, as information on their habitat requirements has become known, and further progress in this area is certain to follow developments in the field of bird and animal ecology.


The maintenance of a stable production forest creates favourable bird and animal habitat. Each species of animal is adjusted to a particular vegitation complex from which it derives food, shelter and places for breeding. Some animals are able to exist within a very narrow range of environment whilst others use quite different sites for different purposes. In the extreme cases, some migrate long distances to use different sites at different times of the year. Any management practice or natural ecological process which affects plant succession influences the succession of animals whilst any process, natural or prescribed, which perpetuates a vegetation type will perpetuate an animal community. As an example, the overmature trees of the mixed species forests with their hollows in the trunks and branches are used by phasocogales and gliders for shelter, and by parrots and cockatoos for nesting. These old trees are not favoured for timber and in some circumstances they can cause difficulties in fire suppression. Traditional forest practice would aim to replace defective, overmature trees by a young, vigorously growing forest hygiene. Nevertheless the role as wildlife habitat of refuge trees is recognised by foresters and silvicultural practice has been adapted to preserve some of these trees. In addition, there is total prohibition by the Commission on cutting trees within prescribed distance of watercourses in many reserved forests which has the effect of preserving the old nest trees in shelered locations.


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A forest is a renewable resource. Provided harvesting is followed by successful regeneration of the crop the operation represents a pausse in the normal ecological changes that occur as the forest matures. Forest management, insofar as State Forests are concerned, is designed to produce timber and other products on a sustained yield basis in perpetuity. This means that only a minute fraction of the total forest area is cut over each year. Before elaborating on forest-management practices I would like to inform the Committee of the situation regarding the forests in Victoria and their status.


Reserved forest is dedicated under the provisions of the Forests Act 1958. The Act provides that reserved forests may be excised or alienated only by exchange for other Crown land or private land which is then dedicated as reserved forest, or by a aspecial procedure which is used if a small area is required for public purposes such as a school, township, road or water supply. In the latter case a procedure is prescribed to ensure public and parliamentary review of the proposed change of tenure. The Act also provides for this purpose, especially unoccupied mountainous Crown land forming the upper watersheds of permanent streams. The permanence of reserved forest is an important feature of its value for conservation purposes.


Proposals for alienation of protected forest, provided for under the Land Act 1958, are determined by the Lands Department whose practice has been to refer such proposals to other Departments, including the Forests Commission, for comment before a decision is made. The establishment in this State of a Land Conservation Council comprising representatives of all major organisations and authorities interested in land use (including forestry and wildlife) will ensure that proposed changes in status of any Crown land will be given thorough review prior to implementation.


The Forests Act 1958 vests in the Forests Commission the responsibility for control, management and protection of all activities on reserved forests, excepting mining. Mining within reserved forests, autorised by either the Mines Act 1958 or the Coal Mines Act 1958, is subject to conditions prescribed by the Commission for the protection and maintenance of the forest.


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The Commission is responsible for the management of the vegetation on protected forests. Since the vegetation controls wildlife populations, protects soil, improves water supplies and aesthetic values, this responsibility is particularly significant in the broad view of conservation.


The Commission is responsible for the management of the vegetation on protected forests. Since the vegetation controls wildlife populations, protects soil, improves water supplies and aesthetic values, this responsibility is particularly significant in the broad view of conservation.


The Commission is also responsible for the protection from fires of reserved forests, protected forests, national parks and, except in some northern and north western districts, all alienated land within one mile of forests and national parks.


The Commission also administers the provisions of the wildflowers and Native Plants Protection Act 1958.


The reserved forests comprise 5,656,671 acres. They are well distributed across the State, in a variety of climatic zones and altitudes, and they include a wide range of vegetations. The forests form the essential habitat of many of the native birds and animals. The variety and density of trees, shrubs and herbs, and the associated insects and other lower forms of animal life combine to provide shelter, food and breeding sites for many species.


Distinct groups of animals and birds thrive in the different types of forest. A number of broad types of forest may be distinguished as different forms of vegetation and different animal and bird habitats.


In the cool, high rainfall zones of the mountain country are tall forests of mountain ash, alpine ash and messmate with dense understorys. Mountain ash forests occupy 535,000 acres and alpine ash 230,000 acres.


These forests provide the habitat for lyrebirds, owls, hawks, cockatoos, parrots, robins, wrens and many other birds. The best-known lyre bird area is the Sherbrooke Forest Park (which also is reserved forest) but it occurs also in forests in the Broadford, Toolangi, Niagaroon, Marysville, Upper Yarra, Kallista, Neerim, Erica, Macalister, Briagolong, Mansfield, Myrtleford, Bright, Tallangatta, Corryong, Omeo and Bruthen districts.


Utilisation of mountain and alpine ash timber involves clear felling of patches of trees, extracting the saleable timber, burning the debris and reseeding the area either artificially or by natural processes. The dense stands of saplings regenerated in this way are habitat for a different community of birds and animals including the Leadbeaters possum


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FCV submission 5.JPG - 4 -


which was once thought to be extinct. It needs the young forests for its survival so is favoured by utilisation activities. As a young forest matures, the character of the vegetation changes, bringing parallel changes in animal population until eventually it resembles the stage at which harvesting of the timber occurred. If no harvesting or severe fires took place, the mountain ash would live for about 350 years and the trees then would be replaced gradually by other species such as myrtle beech, sassafras and various scrub species. This is a natural succession which occurs in the absence of fire or harvesting.


In the Otway Ranges, southwest of Melbourne, there are 38,000 acres of mountain ash forest which differ from the main areas of this type in that they contain also some elements of Tasmanian vegetation. This region is isolated from the other mountain forests and has a somewhat distinct flora and fauna.


Forests of mixed eucalypts, 212,000 acres in extent, surround the mountain ash forests at lower elevations in the Otways. These mixed eucalypt forests, in which stringybarks, peppermints and gums predominate, comprise the most extensive forest type in Victoria. Reserved forests contain a total of 4,066,000 acres of mixed eucalypts. Their structure and density varies considerably and many different plant communities form the understoreys.


They are the principal habitat of the grey kangaroo, although it also inhabits the open woodlands as well as the mallee and red gum ares. The original habitat of the koala was in parts of the mixed species forests. It has been successfully established in the Stawell, Beaufort, Trentham, Daylesford and Macedon districts. The black-tailed wallaby is common where a dense understorey has developed in the Otway Ranges, Ballarat, Creswick, and all districts eastward, on and south of the Dividing Range.


The Grampians State Forest in the Stawell District is a somewhat unique area. It contains mostly mixed stringybarks and other eucalypts to the extent of 350,000 acres. It is isolated from other forests and contains areas of health vegetation. This forest supports a significant timber industry, a rapidly developing tourist industry, and is a most important water catchment area and wildlife refuge.


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The forests of box and ironbark on the northern slopes are a distinct group, with equally distinct fauna, especially birds. There are 610,000 acres of reserved forest containing these species. They provide a range of heavy and durable timbers and are valuable also for honey production and for grasing. The birds in particular appear to use these forests as an essential part of their habitat in conjunction with the open and well established farm lands that surround them.


The red gum forests on the flood plains of main rivers are essentian components of the waterfowl habitat. They cover 340,000 acres of reserved forest, and contain many rookeries and feeding grounds, some of which are under joint management by the Forests Commission and the Fisheries and Wildlife Department.


In addition 101,000 acres of reserved forests are in the category of mallee and comprise eucalypt species which again have a distinctly different bird and animal fauna. The emu inhabits the mallee and the red gum forests in Mildura, Dimboola, Casterton, Lower Glenelg, Heywood, Stawell, Cohuna and Barmah districts. It also inhabits the openn mixed eucalypt forests on the south side of the Dividing Range in Macalister, Briagolong, Omeo, Bruthen, Nowa Nowa, Orbost and Cann Valley districts; also the small areas of alpine grasslands on the high plains in those districts. The reserved forests and the protected forests are shown on the map of Victoria which is tendered herewith.


The Forests Act 1958 (Section 50) provides for area of reserved forest to be set aside by the Forests Commission for special purposes. In many instances these special reserves have been declared for the purpose of preserving flora and fauna. The major reserves under this Section are the forest parks, which consist of substantial areas of forest of special interest set aside for the preservation of fauna and flora, and for scenic and recreation purposes.


The commission has estimated eight forest parks, with a total area of 32,423 acres. Three of them form parts of large areas of other reserved forest. In addition thirteen small reserves, having a total area of 2,345 acres, have been set aside specifically to preserve the habitat of native animals. The total area of reserves specially set aside is 63,716 areas.


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I tender a map of the locations of the forest parks and the other special purpose reserves in Victoria set aside by the Commission under Section 50 of the Forests Act.


A great deal of forestry work is concerned with both the prevention and use of fire in the forests. There is no doubt that the structure of eucalypt forest vegetation has been moulded by fire for thousands of years so that, in all but a few instances, it exhibits patterns of regeneration allied to the frequency with which it was burnt. Fire is not the only factor involved in the distribution pattern of vegetation but it is certainly a major influence.


By far the most important thing here is the time interval between successive fires as this acts as a selective factor in determining which species are present on an area. Where summer rainfall is sufficient and regular enough to prevent fires for very long periods, plant succession produces a "rainforest" climax. Wherever the climate, fuel and incidence of fire are such that fires occur at least once within the lifetime of the tree species, sclerophyll vegetation, dominated by eucalypts occurs. Within the eucalypt forests there is a variety of vegetation types each reflecting the influence of a different fire history on the area. The mountain ash forests have already been mentioned. They require infrequent but severe fires, otherise they would be replaced by other species. It is important to stress that the fire needed for management purposes is controlled and not wildfires. The latter are disastrous for both the forest and wildlife.


Eucalypts in the mixed species forests are rarely killed by fire because they are fire resistant due to thick bark and dormant buds in the trunks and branches, but the frequency of fire determines the character of the understorey vegetation. Very high fire frequencies result in open forest types with tussock grass dominating the ground flora. as the fire frequency decreases, woody shrubs increase. If the interval between successive fires is longer than the life span of the shrubs then they die out and most of the ground flora is smothered by a thick layer of twigs, leaves and bark. Acacias are a typical example. Most acacias produce seed from their third year onward and live for fifteen to twenty-five years before dying.


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Vegetation changes resulting from different fire frequencies are followed by changes in bird and am=nimal populations. If fire is excluded for long enough for the scrub to die out the animal population changes. Where fire at very frequent intervals changes scrub to a herb and grass understorey, kangaroos, quail and ground thrushes, for example, will replace wallabies and pigeons. The Commission is anxious to learn more of the overall and long term effects of fire of various intensities and has an active research programme on the subject. It is co-operating with the Monash University on certain aspects of this work and recently organised, with that University, a well-attended Symposium on Fire Ecology.


The areas of coniferous plantations in Victorian State Forests are being increased by 12,000 acres per year (partly reserved forest, partly protected forest, and partly private property acquired for the purpose). Substantial areas of the various local types of native forest are being retained within and around these plantations, in the form of viable units of native habitat and corridors for wildlife purposes.


Several species of cockatoos, possums and other marsupials, and the lyrebird have already adapted to the softwood plantations by finding food and shelter in them.


The reserved forests of the State are substantial wildlife habitats. They are managed in a manner which protects and preserves their ecological characteristics for wildlife purposes. There are prospects of further improvements in respect of there characteristics as new crops are established and more intensively managed.


Their very large area, and big range of landscape provides an important refuge for wildlife which acts as an essential complement to the more specialised reserves for wildlife and national parks.


Finally I would like to add that the Commission has a competent and well-trained staff including approximately 240 professional foresters. included in their training, both at the Victorian School of Forestry, Creswick, and the University of Melbourne where most complete their science degree in forestry are courses in ecology and some specialised lectures in wildlife in the forest environment. This background of knowledge is useful to both our field foresters and other specialised officers, many of whom are actively associated with local natural history and conservation groups. Two forests officers are at present [?] [?] on post-graduation work relating to ecology and studies of the environment. I tender a copy of the Commission's report on Research Activities, 1969.


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FCV submission 9.JPG BIRDS OF THE VICTORIAN FOREST


R. D. Cowley, Por[e?]ster 1971


HABITAT TYPE, REQUIREMENTS AND STATUS


1. Wet sclerophyll forest, moutain ash, alpine ash, snow gum, and high quility messmate with dense understory.


2. Otways, mountain ash and messmate forests with dry solerophyll fringe areas. Isolated from other wet sclerophyll forests.


3. Dry scerophyll forest, mixed species eucalypt with variable understory.


4. Grampians, a mixture of vegetation types ranging from wet sclerophyll to health land; isolated from other forest areas.


5. Box ironbark forests, mainly grey box and red ironbark with sparse understory.


6. Red gum forest, principally of Murry River.


7. Mallee, a diversity of sub-types.


8. Coastal health land and scrub, including scattered eucalypt.


9. Open woodland and grassland.


10. Swamps and waterways.


H. Requires hollows for shelter or breeding.


J. Requires dense undergrowth.


C. Common to very common.


UC. Uncommon.


R. Rare to very rare.


A. Accidental to Victoria.


[?]. [H?]ot definitley recorded in reserved forest.


Acknowledgements.


This list was compiled by R. D. Cowley from R. W. Wheeler's [?][?]ndlist of Birds of Victoria, Victorian Ornithological Research Group 1967.


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FCV submission 10.JPG BIRDS OF THE VICTORIAN FORESTS


NAME                          FOREST HABITATS               REQUIREMENT        STATUS
                       1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10



Emu                             x     x  x                                       C

Mallee fowl                              x                                       R
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Stubble quail                                  x                                 C

Brown quail                                 x  x  x                              R

King quail                                  x  x                                 R

Red backed quail                                                                 A

Painted quail                x  x  x                                             C

Black breasted quail                                                             A

Little quail                                   x                                 R

Red chested quail                              x                                 R

Plain wanderer                                 x                                 R
___________________________________________________________________________________

Red crowned pigeon                                                               A

Purple crowned pigeon                                                            A

Topknot pigeon                                                                   A

Peaceful dove                      x  x  x                                       C

Diamond dove                       x  x  x                                       R*

Greenw winged pigeon                                                             A

Common bronzewing            x     x  x  x                                       C

Brush bronzewing                x           x                                    R

Crested pigeon                     x  x  x                                       C

Wonga pigeon            x                                                        R*
____________________________________________________________________________________

Lewin water rail                                  x                              R

Banded landrail                                x  x                              R

Spotted crake                                     x                              C

Marsh crake                                       x                              C

Spotless crake                                    x                              R

Native hen                                        x                              R

Moor hen                                          x                              C

Swamp hen                                         x                              C

Coot                                              x                              C
____________________________________________________________________________________

Bustard                                        x                                 R*

Brolga                                         x  x                              R*
_____________________________________________________________________________________

Glossy ibix                           x           x                              R

White ibis                            x        x  x                              C

Straw necked ibis                     x        x  x                              C

Royal apoonbil                        x           x                              R

Yellow tilled spoonbill               x           x                              C

Jabiru                                                                           A

Cattle egret                                      x                              R

Little egret                          x           x                              R*

Plumed egret                          x           x                              R*

White egret                           x           x                              C

White faced heron                     x           x                              C

White necked heron                    x           x                              C

Night heron                           x           x                              C

Little bittern                                    x                              R


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FCV submission 11.JPG BIRDS OF THE VICTORIAN FORESTS


NAME                          FOREST HABITATS               REQUIREMENT        STATUS
                       1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10



Cape barren                                       x                              R

Pied goose                                        x                              R*

Maned goose                           x           x             H                C

Black swan                                        x                              C

Whistling tree duck                               x                              R

Plumed tree duck                                  x                              R

Mountain duck                         x           x             H                C

Black duck                            x           x             H                C

Chestnut teal                         x           x             H                C

Grey teal                             x           x             H                C

Blue winged shoveler                              x                              C

Pink eared duck                       x           x             H                R

Freckled duck                                     x                              R

Harhead                               x           x                              C

Blue billed duck                                  x                              R

[?]duck                                           x                              C
________________________________________________________________________________________

Spotted harrier                          x                                       R

Swamp harrier                         x        x  x                              C

Grey goshawk              x                                                      R

Australia goshawk      x  x  x  x  x  x                                          C

Sparrow hawk           x  x  x  x  x  x                                          R

Wedetail eagle         x  x  x  x  x  x  x     x                                 C

Little eagle                    x  x  x  x     x                                 C

White breasted sea eagle              x           x

Whistling eagle              x  x  x  x  x     x  x                              C

Black kite                         x  x  x     x                                 R*

Square tailed kite                                                               A 

Buzzard                                                                          A 

Black shouldered kite                          x                                 C

Letter wing kite                               x                                 R

Little falcon                x  x  x  x                                          R

Grey falcon                                    x                                 R

Pregrine falcon                 x  x  x  x                                       R

Black falcon                                   x                                 R

Brown hawk                      x     x     x  x                                 C

Kestrel                         x     x     x  x                                 C

Osprey                                            x                              R*
________________________________________________________________________________________

Boobook owl            x  x  x  x  x  x  x                      H                C

Winking owl                     x  x  x  x                      H                R

Powerful owl           x  x                                     H                R

Barn owl                        x  x  x  x     x

Masked owl             x     x                                  H                R

Grass owl                                                                        A

[?]ooty owl            x                                        H                R


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FCV submission 12.JPG BIRDS OF THE VICTORIAN FORESTS


NAME                             FOREST HABITATS               REQUIREMENT        STATUS
                          1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10



Rainbow lorikeet                   x                               H                R*

Musk lorikeet                   x  x  x  x                         H                C

Purple crowned lorikeet         x  x  x  x  x                      H                C

Little lorikeet                 x                                  H                R*
____________________________________________________________________________________________

Red tailed black cockatoo       x                                  H                R*

Glossy black cockatoo           x                                  H                R

Yellow tailed black cockatoo    x  x                               H                C

Gang gang cockatoo        x  x  x  x                               H                C

White cockatoo                  x  x  x  x  x                      H                C

Pink cockatoo                               x                      H                R

Little corella                              x                      H                R*

Corella                            x              x                H                R

Galah                                    x  x     x                H                C

Cockatiel                                x  x     x                H                R*

Superb parrot                            x                         H                R

Regent parrot                               x                      H                R

King parrot               x  x                                     H                R*

Crimson rosella           x  x  x  x                               H                C

Yellow rosella                           x                         H                C

Eastern rosella                    x  x  x        x                H                C

Ring neck parrot                            x                      H                C

Red backed parrot                     x  x  x                      H                C

Mulga parrot                                x                      H                R*

Blue bonnet                                                        H                R*

Turquoise parrot                x                                  H                R

Scarlet chested parrot                      x                      H                R

Orange breasted parrot                         x                   H                R

Blue winged parrot        x  x                    x                H                C

Elegant parrot                                    x                H                R*

Swift parrot                    x  x     x                         H                C

Budgerygah                               x  x                      H                C

Ground parrot                                  x                                    R
____________________________________________________________________________________________

Raven                     x  x  x  x  x  x                                          C

Little raven                       x  x  x  x                                       C

Crow                                                                                A

Little crow                                 x                                       R*

Chough                          x  x  x  x  x                                       C

Pied currawong            x  x  x  x                                                C

Black winged currawong                      x                                       C

Grey currawong                  x  x  x  x                                          C
 
Pied butcher bird                           x                                       R*

Grey butcher bird                  x  x  x  x                                       C

Black backed magpie             x  x  x  x  x     x                                 C

White backed magpie             x                 x                                 C


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FCV submission 13.JPG BIRDS OF THE VICTORIAN FORESTS


NAME                                  FOREST HABITATS               REQUIREMENT        STATUS
                               1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10



Orange winged sittella               x        x                                          C

Black capped sittella                   x  x     x                                       R

Brown tree creeper                      x  x  x  x                      H                C

White throated tree creeper    x  x  x  x  x  x                         H                C

Red browed tree creeper        x                                        H               [R?]

White browed tree creeper                        x                      H                R
____________________________________________________________________________________________

Mistletoe bird                 x  x  x  x  x  x  x                                       C

Spotted pardalote              x  x  x  x  x  x                         H                C

Yellow tailed pardalote                          x                                       C

Yellow tipped pardalote              x                                                   R

Eastern striated pardalote     x  x  x  x                                                C

Striated pardalote             x  x  x  x  x  x  x                                       C

Silvereye                      x  x  x  x  x  x  x                                       C
___________________________________________________________________________________________

White naped honeyeater         x  x  x  x  x  x                                          C

Black chinned honeyeater                   x  x  x                                       R

Brown headed honeyeater           x  x  x  x  x  x                                       C

Striped honeyeater                               x                                       R

Scarlet honeyeater             x                                                         R

Black honeyeater                                 x

Eastern spinebill              x  x  x  x  x        x                                    C

Tawny crowned honeyeater                x        x  x                                    R

White fronted honeyeater                         x                                       R*

Painted honeyeater                         x  x                                          R*

Pied honeyeater                                  x                                       R

Regent honeyeater                          x  x                                          C

Lewin honeyeater               x                                                         R*

Singing honeyeater                               x  x                                    C

Fuscous honeyeater                         x  x                                          C

Yellow faced honeyeater        x  x  x  x  x  x                                          C

White eared honeyeater         x  x  x  x  x  x  x                                       C

Helmeted honeyeater                                 x                                    R

Yellow tufted honeyeater                   x  x                                          C

Purple gaped honeyeater                          x                                       R*

Yellow plumed honeyeater                         x                                       C

Yellow fronted honeyeater                                                                A

White plumed honeyeater                       x                                          C

Crescent honeyeater            x  x                                                      C

Yellow winged honeyeater                x           x                                    C

Bell miner                                                                               C

Noisy miner                             x  x  x  x                                       C

Yellow throated miner                            x                                       C

Dusky miner                                      x                                       R

Little wattle bird                      x           x                                    C

Red wattle bird                x  x  x  x  x     x                                       C

Spiny checked honeyeater                      x  x                                       C

Blue faced honeyeater                      x  x                                          R*

Noisy friar bird                              x                                          R*

Little friar bird                          x  x                                          C


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FCV submission 14.JPG BIRDS OF THE VICTORIAN FORESTS


NAME                                  FOREST HABITATS               REQUIREMENT        STATUS
                               1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10



Pipit                                                  x                                 C

Bushlark                                               x                                 C

Beautiful firetail                x                 x                                    R

Diamond firetail                        x  x  x                                          C

Zebra finch                                   x        x                                 C

Chestnut breasted finch                                x                                 R*

Plum headed finch                                                                        A

Red browed finch               x  x  x  x                                                C

Olive backed oriole            x  x  x  x  x  x                                          C

Spangled drongo                x                                                         R*

Apostle bird                                  x                                          R*

Satin bower bird               x  x                                                      R*

Spotted bower bird                               x                                       R
________________________________________________________________________________________________

White winged triller                 x  x  x  x  x                                       C

Southern figbird                                                                         A

Spotted quail thrush                 x  x  x                                             C

Chestnut quail thrush                            x                                       R

Southern scrub robin                             x                                       R

Grey crowned babbler                          x                                          R

White browed babbler                    x  x  x  x                                       C

Chestnut crowned babbler                         x                                       R

Mountain thrush                x  x                                                      R
________________________________________________________________________________________________

White fronted chat                                     x  x                              C

Crimson chat                                     x                                       R*

Orange chat                                      x                                       R*

White throated warbler               x                                                   R*

Brown warbler                  x                                                         R*

Western warbler                               x  x                                       R*

Brown weebill                              x  x  x                                       C

Eastern white face                      x  x     x     x
_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Striated thornbill             x  x  x  x  x  x                                          C

Little thornbill                        x  x  x  x                                       C

Brown thornbill                x  x  x  x  x  x                                          C

Red tailed thornbill                             x                                       R

Chestnut tailed thornbill                     x  x                                       C

Lark thornbill                                   x                                       R

Buff tailed thornbill                   x  x  x                                          C

Yellow tailed thornbill                 x     x  x     x                                 C
___________________________________________________________________________________________________

White browed scrub wren        x  x  x  x  x  x                                          C

Large billed scrub wren        x                                                         R*

Red throat                                       x                                       R*

Chestnut tailed ground wren             x           x                                    R

Shy ground wren                            x     x                                       R

Striated field wren                                 x                                    R

Rufous field wren                                x                                       R

Speckled warbler                        x  x                                             C


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FCV submission 15.JPG BIRDS OF THE VICTORIAN FORESTS


NAME                                  FOREST HABITATS               REQUIREMENT        STATUS
                               1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10



Pilot bird                     x                                                         R

Brown songlark                                         x                                 C

Rufous songlark                         x  x  x                                          C

Striated grass wren                              x                                       R

Eastern bristle bird                                x                                    R

Rufous bristle bird               x                                                      C

Little grassbird                                          x                              C

Reed warbler                                              x                              C

Fantail warbler                                           x                              C
________________________________________________________________________________________________

Southern emu wren                 x     x           x                                    R

Malleee emu wren                                 x                                       R

Blue wren                      x  x  x  x  x  x                                          C

Black backed wren                                x                                       R

Blue and white wren                              x                                       R

Purple backed wren                               x                                       C
_________________________________________________________________________________________________

White breasted wood swallow                   x                                          C

Masked wood swallow                        x  x  x                                       R*

White browed wood swallow                  x  x  x                                       C

Black faced wood swallow                      x                                          R*

Dusky wood swallow                   x  x  x  x  x                                       C

Little wood swallow                                                                      A
_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Tawny frogmouth                      x  x  x  x  x                                       C

Owlet night jar                      x  x  x  x  x                      H                C

Dollar bird                                   x                         H                R*
__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Azure kingfisher                              x           x                              R*

Kookaburra                     x  x  x  x  x  x  x                      H                C

Red backed kingfisher                         x                                          R*

Sacred kingfisher                    x  x     x                         H                C

Rainbow bird                               x  x  x                                       C
___________________________________________________________________________________________________

White throated nightjar        x  x                                                      R*

Spotted nightjar                                 x                                       R*

Spine tailed swift                                     x                                 C

Fork tailed swift                                                                        X
____________________________________________________________________________________________________

Pallid cuckoo                     x  x  x  x  x  x                                       C

Fantailed cuckoo                  x  x  x  x  x  x                                       C

Brush cuckoo                   x                                                         R

Black eared cuckoo                         x  x  x                                       R

Horsfield bronze cuckoo        x  x  x  x  x  x  x                                       C

Shining bronze cuckoo                                                                    A

Golden bronze cuckoo           x  x  x  x  x  x  x                                       C

Koel                                                                                     A


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FCV submission 16.JPG BIRDS OF THE VICTORIAN FORESTS


NAME                                  FOREST HABITATS               REQUIREMENT        STATUS
                               1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10



Lyrebird                       x                                                         C

Welcome swallow                                        x                                 C

White backed swallow                          x  x                                       R

Tree martin                                            x                                 C

Fairy martin                                           x
_______________________________________________________________________________________________

Grey fantail                   x  x  x  x  x  x  x                                       C

Rufous fantail                 x  x  x  x                                                C

Willie wagtail                          x  x  x  x     x                                 C

Leaden flycatcher              x  x  x                                                   R*

Satin flycatcher               x  x  x                                                   R*

Restless flycatcher                     x  x  x  x                                       C

Black faced flycatcher         x                                                         R*

Jacky winter                            x  x  x  x                                       C
________________________________________________________________________________________________

Scarlet robin                  x  x  x  x  x                                             C

Red capped robin                              x  x                                       C

Flame robin                    x  x  x  x  x                                             C

Pink robin                     x  x                                                      R

Rose robin                     x  x                                                      R

Hooded robin                            x  x  x  x                                       C

Yellow robin                   x  x  x  x                                                C
_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Golden whistler                x  x  x  x  x  x  x                                       C

Rufous whistler                   x  x  x  x  x  x                                       C

Red throated whistler                            x                                       R

Gilbert whistler                                 x                                       R*

Olive whistler                 x  x                                                      R 
_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Grey thrush                    x  x  x  x  x  x  x                                       C

Magpie lark                             x  x  x  x                                       C

Shrike tit                     x  x  x  x  x  x                                          C

Crested bellbird                           x     x                                       C

Wedgebill                                                                                A
__________________________________________________________________________________________________

Eastern whipbird               x                                                         C

Western whipbird                                 x                                       R

Ground cuckoo shrike                          x  x                                       R

Black faced cuckoo shrike            x  x  x  x  x                                       C

Little cuckoo shrike                    x  x  x  x                                       R*

Cicada bird                    x                                                         R*


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FCV submission 17.JPG MAMMALS OF THE VICTORIAN FORESTS

A. H[?]i[?]l[?]rs Forester 1971


HABITAT TYPE, REQUIREMENTS AND STATUS

1. Wet sclerophyll forest, mountain ash, alpine ash, snow gum, and high quality messmate with dense understory.


2. Otways, mountain ash and messmate forests with dry sclerophyll fringe areas. Isolated from other wet sclerophyll forests.


3. Dry sclerophyll forests, mixed species eucalypt with variable understory,


4. Grampians, a mixture of vegetation types ranging from wet sclerophyll to heathland; isolated from other forest areas.


5. Box ironbark forest, mainly grey box and red ironbark with sparse understory.


6. Red gum forest, principally of Murray River.


7. Mallee, a diversity of sub-types.


8. Coastal heath land and scrub, including scattered eucalypt.


9. Open woodland and grassland.


10. Swamps and waterways.


H. Requires hollows for shelter or breeding.


U. Requires dense undergrowth.


C. Common to very common.


UC. Uncommon


R. Rare to very rare.


A. Accidental to Victoria.


[N?]. Not definitely recorded in reserved forest.


Acknowledgements.


This list was compiled by A. Heislers from published information, personal research and liaison with the Fisheries and Wildlife Department through Mr. R. M. Warnake.


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FCV submission 18X.JPG MAMMALS OF THE VICTORIAN FORESTS


NAME                                  FOREST HABITATS               REQUIREMENTS        STATUS           NOTES 
                               1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10



Echidna
Tachyglossus aculeatus         x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x                               C

Platypus
Ornithorhynchus anatinus                                  x                               C           Throughout Victoria.

Quol
Dasyurus viverrinus            x  x  x  x           x  x                                  R           Relict colonies only
                                                                                                      Dergo, [?]

Tiger cat                                                                U                UC          Rocky areas - Breed
Dasyurops maculatus            x  x  x              x  x                                              in dense cover only
                                                                                                      but widely ranging.

Tuan
Phascogale tapoatafa           x     x     x        x  x                 H                C

Brown phascogale
Antechinus stuartii            x  x  x  x           x                    H                C

Yellow footed phascogale                                                                              Sparsely wooded
Antechinus flavipes                  x  x  x  x  x     x                 H                C           areas.

Dusky phascogale
Antechinus flavipes            x  x  x  x           x                    U                C

Swamp phascogale                                                                                      Damp coastal heath-
Antechinus minimus                x                 x                    U                UC          land of S.W.
                                                                                                      Victoria.

Fat-tailed dunnart                                                                                    Sparsely wooded
Sminthopsis                                                                               C           areas.
  crassicaudata

White-footed dunnart                                                                                  Sparsely wooded
Sminthopsis leucopus                 x              x  x                                  RN          areas - Bucchan.

Slender-tailed dunnart                                                                                Big Desert the only
Sminthopsis murina                               x                                        RN          authentic record

Long nosed bandicoot                                                                                  Wetter forests
Perameles nasuta               x  x  x              x                    U                C

Barred bandicoot                                                                                      West Victoria.
Perameles gunnii                                       x                                  UC          Relict colonies
                                                                                                      only.

Short nosed bandicoot                                                                                 Drier forests.
Isoodon obesulus               x  x  x  x           x                    U                C
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Brush tailed possum
Trichosurus vulpecula          x  x  x  x  x  x     x  x                 U

Bobuck                                                                                                Central and
Trichosurus caninus            x                             8           U                 C          Eastern Victoria.

Leadbeaters possum                                                                                    Restricted to
Gymnobelideus leadbeaters      x                                                           UC         regrowth ash and
                                                                                                      similar species.


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FCV submission 19.JPG MAMMALS OF THE VICTORIAN FORESTS


NAME                                  FOREST HABITATS               REQUIREMENTS        STATUS           NOTES 
                               1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10



Pigmy possum                                                                                        Usually heath type
Cercartetus nanus              x     x  x           x                    HU               C         understory,
                                                                                                    uncommon in
                                                                                                    highlands.

Mundarda                                                                                            Mallee heath with
Cercartetus concinus                             x                       H                UCN       Myrtaceous and
                                                                                                    Proteaceous shrubs

Burramys possum                                                                                     North east. Rocky
Burramys                       x                                                          VRN       areas with alpine
                                                                                                    heath.

Yellow-bellied glider                                                                               Excluding mountain
Petaurus australis             x  x  x                                   H                C         ash. Nomadic.

Squirrel glider
Petaurus norfolcensis                x  x  x                             H                R         Grey box, nomadic.

Sugar glider                                                                                        Widespread, nomadic.
Petaurus breviceps             x  x  x  x  x                             H                C

Feather-tail glider
Acrobates pygmaes              x  x  x  x  x                             H                C

Koala                                                                                               Present
Phascolarctos cinereus         x  x  x  x     x        x                                  C         distribution
                                                                                                    reflects liberation
                                                                                                    programme

Ring-tailed possum
Pseudocheirus peregrinus       x  x  x  x           x                    H                C

Greater glider
Schoinobates volans            x     x                                   H                C

Wombat                                                                                              Not in W. Victoria.
Vombatus ursinus               x     x           x                       U
    
Grey kangaroo                                                                                       Sparsely wooded
Macropus giganteus                   x  x  x  x  x     x                                  C         forest.

Red kangaroo                                                                                        Inland plains in
Megaleia rufa                                    x     x                                  CN        N. Victoria.

[Buro?]                                                                                             Visitor to north
Macropus robustus                    x                                                    AN        and east.

Black-tailed wallaby                                                                                Central and
Wallabia bicolor               x  x  x              x                    U                C         eastern.

Red-necked wallaby                                                                                  Open scrubs.
Wallabia rufogrisea               x  x  x        x     x                                  C

Brush-tailed rock wallaby                                                                           Cliffs and rocky
Petrogale penicillata                x  x                                                 R         areas. Relict
                                                                                                    colonies in
                                                                                                    E. Victoria.

Potoroo
Potorous                       x  x  x  x           x                    U


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FCV submission 20.JPG MAMMALS OF THE VICTORIAN FORESTS


NAME                                  FOREST HABITATS               REQUIREMENTS        STATUS           NOTES 
                               1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10



Black-faced kangaroo
Macropus fuliginosus
melanops                                      x                                           UC          Malee scrub.

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Bush rat
Rattus fuscipes                x  x  x              x                    U                C           Widespread.

Swamp rat
Rattus lutreolus               x  x  x  x           x     x              U                C           Damp sites.

Smoky mouse                                                                                           Relict colonies,
Pseudomys fumeus                  x     x                                                 R           not recorded in
                                                                                                      Otways for 25 years.

Silky mouse                                                                                           Favours heaths,
Pseudomys albocinereus                           x                       U                            population densities
                                                                                                      very variable.

New Holland mouse                                                                                     One known colony,
Pseudomys novaehollandiae            x                                   U                VRN         Tyabb. Heath
                                                                                                      understory.

Heath rat                                                                                             Open forest, heaths
Pseudomys shortridged                   x           x                    U                            on sandy soils.

Broad-toothed rat                                                                                     Restricted, rare,
Mastocomys fuscus              x  x  x                                   U                R           high rainfall areas.

Hopping mouse                                                                                         Big desert only.
Notomys mitchelli                                x                                        UCN

Eastern water rat                                                                                     Inland and coastal
Hydromys chrysogaster                                                                     C           waterways,
                                                                                                      widespread.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Grey-headed fruit bat                                                                                 Visitor of far
Pteropus poliocephalus               x                 x                                  AN          eastern Victoria
                                                                                                      in summer and more
                                                                                                      rarely central
                                                                                                      Victoria.

Little red fruit bat
Pteropus scapulatus                  x                                                    AN

Horseshoe bat                                                                                         Cave dweller, few
Rhinolophus megaphyllus              x                                                    C           Buchan district only.

Large footed Myotis                                                                                   Cave dweller, few
Myotis adversus                      x                                                    UCN         known colonies, far
                                                                                                      eastern to far
                                                                                                      western Victoria.

Bent wing bat                                                                                         Cave dweller, all
Miniopterus schreibersii             x  x                                                 C           near water, widely
                                                                                                      distributed.


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FCV submission 21.JPG MAMMALS OF THE VICTORIAN FORESTS


NAME                                  FOREST HABITATS               REQUIREMENTS        STATUS           NOTES 
                               1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10



Yellow-bellied bat                                                                                  Very few records
Taphazous flaviventris                                                   H                RN        for Victoria.

Little bat                                                                                          Also caves in north.
Eptesicus pumilus                    x  x        x                       H                C

Goulds bat                                                                                          Widely distributed,
Chalinolobus gouldi            x     x  x        x                       H                C         also urban.

Chocolate bat                                                                                       Fairly widely
Chalinolobus morio                   x           x                       H                UCN       distributed.

Lesser long-eared bat
Nyctophilus geoffroyi          x     x  x  x     x                       H                C

Broad-nosed bat
S[?][?]teinus balstoni                  x     x  x                       H                C

Little mastiff bat                                                                                  Far west Victoria
Tadarida planiceps                            x  x     x                 H                C         along Murray River

White striped bat                                                                                   Temperate Aust.,
Tadarida australis                   x           x                       H                RN        particularly Mallee
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

INTRODUCED SPECIES - FERAL

Goat                                                                                                Grampians,
Capra hircus                         x  x                                                 UC        Lerderderg Gorge.

Horse (Brumby)                                                                                      Mountains of
Equus caballus                 x     x                                                    C         N.E. Gippsland

Fallow deer                                                                                         Kentbruck area,
Dama Dama                                           x                                     VR        originally in
                                                                                                    Yarra Valley.

Red deer                                                                                            Grampians, Snowy
Cervus elephas                       x  x                                                 UC        River.

Hog deer                                                                                            Coastal scrub and
Cervus porcinus                                     x                                     RN        heath lands east of 
                                                                                                    Westernport.

Sambur                                                                                              Mt. Cole, Central
Cervus unicolor                x     x                                                    C         Highlands, north
                                                                                                    and south of Divide.

Fox                                                                                                 Widespread.
Vulpes vulpes                  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x                                  C

Feral dog and dingo                                                                                 Central and east
Canis familiaris               x  x  x                                                    C         Victoria
                                                                                                    particularly the
                                                                                                    ranges.

Cat                                                                                                 Widespread.
Felis catus                    x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x                                  C


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FCV submission 22.JPG MAMMALS OF THE VICTORIAN FORESTS


NAME                                  FOREST HABITATS               REQUIREMENTS        STATUS           NOTES 
                               1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10



Hare                                                                                                  Scattered.
Lepos europaeus                                        x                                  UC

Rabbit                                                                                                Widespread.
Oryctolagus cuniculus          x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x                                  C

Ship rat                                                                                              Scattered - well
Rattus rattus                  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x                                              established in
                                                                                                      association with
                                                                                                      man.

Brown rat                                                                                             Urban only.
Rattus norvegious                                                                         CN

Mouse
Mus musculus                   x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x  x                                  C           Fluctuating density.

Pig                                                                                                   Along Murray
Sus scrofa                                                x                                           River.

Ferret                                                                                                Escapes - do not
Putorius putorius                                                                         N           appear to survive
                                                                                                      long.

Squirrel                                                                                              Ballarat Gardens.
Sciurus corolinensis                                                                      N


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FCV submission 23.JPG ADDENDUM TO ANIMALS OF THE VICTORIAN FORESTS


Native animals recorded in the period 1969 - 1970 in the Trentham and Daylesford Forests, which have a long history of management and intensive use for many purposes.


Echidna                  Tachglyossus aculeatus

Tuan                     Phascogale tapoatafa

Brown phascogale         Antenchinus stuartii

Bush rat                 Rattus fuscipes

Brushtail possum         Trichosurus vulpecula

Ringtailed possum        Pseudocheirus peregrinus

Greater glider           Schoinobates volans

Yellow bellied glider    Acrobates pygmaeus

Pigmy possum             Cercartetus nanus

Wombat                   Vombatus ursinus

Grey kangaroo            Macropus giganteus

Koala                    Phascolarctus cinereus

Blacktailed wallaby      Wallabia bicolor

Long eared bat           Nyctophilus geoffroyi

(other bats not identified)

 This submission sets out the attitude of the Forest Commission to wildlife conservation in 1971. The Commission still believed that clearfell logging and the production of dense stands of regrowth were very important for the conservation of Leadbeater's possum. Note that one of the tables at the end of the written submission shows that the Forest Commission did not consider Leadbeater's Possum to require suitable hollow forming trees as part of its habitat requirements.

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